The attractive colours and fragrances produced by the plants are due to specific phytochemicals present in them. The objective of this study was to find out some physio-chemical parameters of leaves and stems of plants, and the presence of phytochemicals, carbohydrate, proteins, and antioxidant activity by hydrogen peroxides scavenging assay in the ethanolic and hydroethanolic extract of Adansonia digitata in both leaves and stems by qualitative screening method. In qualitative analysis, the presence of phytochemicals compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, tanins, phenols, anthraquinoes, flavonoids, steroids, terpinoids were determined in the ethanolic and hydroethanolic extract by standard methods. Results concluded that the presence of this active compound may be responsible for the medicinal exploitation of the plant. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity significantly increases with concentration. The phenolic and vitamin C content in the baobab leaf fraction played a significant role in the antioxidant activity due to reducing mechanisms.
The use of insecticides is one of the effective methods of control of insects in stored foodstuffs, but the presence of residues in the foodstuffs and the emergence of strains of insects resistant to these insecticides are becoming more and more worrying. All these reasons militate in favor of the search for alternative methods, in particular, the use of essential oils with insecticide and/or insect repellent properties. For this purpose, the repellent effect of the essential oils of the aerial part of Origanum glandulosum (Desf.) (Lamiaceae), the seeds of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) and the combination between the two oils (1/2:1/2) against the insect Tribolium confusum (Duval) were evaluated using the preferential area method on filter paper. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, then, four different contents of these oils were prepared by dilution in acetone, in the proportions of 2, 4, 8, 12 µl/ml of acetone which corresponds to 0.031, 0.062, 0.125, 0.188 µl/cm2 respectively. The result reveals that the highest dose of O. glandulosum (Desf.) and the combination of the (O. glandulosum (Desf.) and P. nigrum L.) has a strong repellent effect of 93.33% on adults of T. confusum (Duval). Also, the combination of the two essential oils has shown the lowest RD50 (0.0013μl/cm2) followed by the oil of O. glandulosum (0.013μl/cm2). However, the oil of P. nigrum records the highest RD50 (0.025 μl/cm2). From these results, it was concluded that the repulsion percentage of the oils is dose-dependent and the RD50 varies according to the sensitivity of the insect to essential oils.
The soil sustains plant life and supplies nourishment for growth, and its productivity and salt stress are important factors in agricultural yield. In this regard, from 2016-17 to 2020-21, this study was done to determine the soils of Tehsil Athara-Hazari Jhang for their salinity-sodicity condition, at the union council (UC) level. A total of 1654 soil samples were obtained from Tehsil Athara-Hazari's ten union councils. The obtained samples were evaluated for various physic-chemical characteristics following standard methods. According to the findings, 45.7 % (756 samples) of Tehsil Athara-Hazari's soils were non-salty, 50.3 % (831 samples) were saline-sodic to sodic, and only 4.0 % (67 samples) were saline. The most troublesome soils were identified in UC Dosa, whereas the least damaging soils were discovered in UC Munde Syed. In terms of the fertility state of Tehsil Athara-Hazari soils, 64.0 % (1059 samples) had low organic matter (OM) content, 32.5 % (538 samples) had medium OM content, and only 3.5 % (57 samples) had appropriate OM level. The majority of soils (68.7%) were found to be inadequate in available phosphorus (P), with only 31.3 % in the medium range. The extractable potassium (K) 76.1% (1259 samples) was found in medium range, 13.7% (227 samples) in adequate range and only 10.2% (168 samples) were in deficient range. Soil textural analysis indicate that most of Athara-Hazari soils 76.4% (1263 samples) soils were loam, followed by 12.8 % (212 samples) clay type and the least 10.8 % (179 samples) were labeled as sandy loam. When examined at the union council UC level, UC Mari Shah Sagira had the highest OM deficient soils (75.0 %), whereas UC Kot Shakir had OM appropriate soils (9.0 %). Similarly, the highest percentages of UC Rasheed pur soils about 74.5% were deficient in accessible phosphorus P, while the lowest percentage was in UC Dosa. The maximum soils (85.5%) of Kot Murad were in fall in medium ranged extractable K while minimum 44.4 % in UC Munde Syed, large proportion of Munde Syed has adequate K. The majority of the soils in UC Kot Murad were loam, whereas the percentage of loamy sand at UC Munde Syed was the lowest. The most light-textured soils were found in UC Uch Gul Imam, whereas clayey soils were found in UC Munde Syed. Appropriate measures should be adopted on war-foot basis to overcome the low fertility and hazardous effects of salinity/sodicity concerns, as to increase the crop productivity in current food security threats.
Aflatoxins, produced by ubiquitous Aspergillus section Flavi species, are polyketide pathway-derived secondary metabolites and, due to their highly carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic nature, pose human severe health issues globally. In this study, raw groundnut kernels were collected from groundnut growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan, at pre and post-harvest stages. Groundnut-associated Aspergillus flavus isolates were morphologically identified, and their respective aflatoxins producing potential was determined through cultural methods; UV illumination and ammonia vapor exposure. Three hundred isolates were cultured on differential media, Malt extract agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar, for studying typical morphocultural characteristics, and detailed microscopy. Observed phenotypic variability assorted isolates into twenty groups. Representative isolate of each group was grown on coconut agar medium and exposed to UV illumination and ammonia vapors to observe possible fluorescence excitation and reverse colony color change, respectively. Results of both cultural methods conformed to each other; 35% of isolates produced fluorescent ring upon UV exposure and pinkish reverse colony color upon ammonia vapors exposure (toxigenic), 50% isolates showed no change (atoxigenic), and 15 % showed unclear results. This study provides evidence that groundnut kernels are highly exposed to toxigenic A. flavus strains both at pre and post-harvest stages.
Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a widespread and most destructive virus that causes leaf crinkle disease in black gram. Virus infection causes alteration in physiological and biochemical processes within the plant. In present study, effect of viral infection was investigated on chlorophyll content, total soluble sugar, total protein, phenolic contents, sodium dismutase (SOD) and nitrate reductase activities in the leaves of susceptible and resistant genotypes of urdbean at 30 days after virus inoculation. Disease symptoms were mild (6.7% to 10%) in resistant genotypes and severe (36% to 43%) in susceptible genotypes. ULCV infection resulted in a significant decrease in chlorophyll content in infected plants of all genotypes over control plants; however, magnitude of reduction was more in susceptible genotypes (41%) as compared to the resistant genotypes (14.35%). The total sugar and protein contents were significantly higher in the inoculated susceptible (210.26 % and 68.67%, respectively) as compared to the resistant genotypes (183.87% and 25.89%, respectively). Also, the total phenolic content was significantly higher in inoculated resistant genotypes (83.91%) over the susceptible genotypes (25.89%). There was significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in resistant genotypes as compared to susceptible inoculated genotypes. Similarly, a reduction in nitrate reductase activity was more in inoculated plants of resistant genotypes. Our results indicate that post-infection significant increases in total sugars and proteins in susceptible genotypes and phenols in resistant genotypes may have a role in disease resistance and development. Changes in enzymatic activities in resistant and susceptible genotypes might also have some role in resistance against ULCV.
The ameliorative prospective of Jambul (Syzygium cumini) fruit pulp extract was studied against Pb-based hepato-histological and micrometric changes in albino laboratory mice (Mus musculus). There were 3 experimental groups: (i) Control group (untreated) (ii) Pb group (15 days 50ppm Pb ions from Lead acetate in drinking water (iii) Pb+Jm group (Pb ions treatment as in Pb group followed by 0.2ml/per day jambul fruit pulp extract through gavage and plain water for the next 5 days). Animals were euthanized on the 21st day to recover liver for histopathological and micrometric studies.
The misalignment of the hepatic cord with narrowed and chocked sinusoidal spaces and some lesions in hepatic tissue were seen as persistent histopathological signs of lead exposure. Micrometric observations indicate that the mean cross-sectional area of the hepatocytes in the Pb group (483.5µ2) increased significantly than the control group (420.1µ2), similarly, the mean cross-sectional area of the hepatocytes nuclei in the Pb group was also significantly higher (76.69µ2) than the control (62.37µ2). These pathological and micrometric signs were convincingly reversed in Pb+Jm, additionally, hepatoblasts progenitor cells were frequently observed, indicating the rehabilitative and regenerative potential of jambul fruit pulp extract. Results indicate that jambul fruit pulp extract possesses precious hepato-protective and regenerative potentials against lead exposure-related hepato-histopathology. The findings of the present study indicate the nutraceutical role of jambul fruit pulp extract for potential human consumption.
An equitable water supply is pre-requisite under limited water availability. The varying irrigations have diverse impact on growth behavior of wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) under site specific environments. A research was conducted in the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan in the student sector to compare the output of the wheat lines under various irrigation regimes in 2018-2019. Five wheat lines (V1=9496, V2=ZA-10, V3=Galaxy-2013, V4=ZA-6, V5=9493), were tested against various irrigations (2, 3 and 4 irrigations) in their growth period. Treatments were organized in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement. Data was analyzed using LSD test with 5% probability. Analysis of genotypes under different irrigations revealed that, the wheat line ZA-6 has better growth performance and highest yield than others under three irrigations. Moreover, this line showed highest economic benefits (Rs. 63892) than all other genotypes when supplied with three irrigations. In conclusion ZA-6 was the potential line of wheat under Faisalabad conditions and can be recommended to farmers for cultivation with three irrigations.
Tomato is grown widely in almost 140 countries having annual production of 151 million tons and is mostly grown in South America. Pure culture of Alternaria solani isolated from twig and leaf samples was prepared. The fungal colonies were cultured in Broth of MEA and PDA for 5-7 days at 25oC. Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium-bromide (CTAB) extraction technique was applied for DNA extraction of A. solani with little modification. Molecular identification with ITS primers of isolated fungi was undertaken and a 594bp size of the band was obtained. The DNA sequence was submitted to Gen Bank having Gene Bank no. MN200940. The sequenced data was 100% similar to the Alternaria isolate Alt-C81 of Gen Bank accession code MN044802. Biological control agents were applied and data were collected at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 10 days. The maximum inhibition percentage after 3 days (84.23%) was recorded by Azospirillum lipoferum (RB-38) while the lowest inhibition (44.84%) was recorded by Bacillus subtilis (RB-59). After 7 days of incubation, the highest inhibition (89.13%) was observed by using A. lipoferum (RB-38) and the lowest (60.57%) by Bacillus spp. (RB-43), respectively. After 10 days of incubation, the highest inhibition percentage (95.91%) was recorded by B. subtilis (RB-59) and the lowest by Bacillus thuringiensis (RB-16) with PI of 13.71% respectively. These results suggest that the bacterial isolates studied have a good potential to be used as biocontrol agents of A. solani in tomato plants for the sustainable production of tomatoes without using fungicides. It not gives a good perspective for sustainability and also reduce the environmental pollution.