Original Research Article

TALBINAH-21: PAKISTAN’S FIRST HULL-LESS, HIGH YIELDING AND LODGING TOLERANT BARLEY VARIETY

JAVED AHMAD, MUHAMMAD IJAZ TABASSUM, MUHAMMAD OWAIS, MUHAMMAD RIAZ, MAJID NADEEM, MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH, HIRA SHAIR, SAIMA GULNAZ, IQRA GHAFOOR, AHSAN JAVED, AZHAR MAHMOOD

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 1-9

Talbinah-21, a first hull-less barley variety was prepared at Wheat Research Institute (WRI), Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad Punjab-Pakistan during 2021 and released for irrigated and moisture stress areas of Punjab as well. The proposed genotype with parental AGER/2*PETUNIA 1 with pedigree CBSW01WM00121T-0TOPY-4M-1Y-1M-1Y-OM-0AP was earmarked due to promising hull-less line and selected from the exotic breeding materials ‘’International Naked Barley Yield Trial (INBYT)’’ during 2014-15. This trial was received from International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Terbol, Lebanon, through National Wheat Coordinator, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. Although, the yield performance was not up to the mark with respect to local check Jau-83, but the Entry No 12 expressed itself a promising hull-less line and acclimatised completely well among all 25 entries in the said trials.

 So, keeping in view the expressivity of the line, it was added and evaluated with the variety code of B-15006 for yield performance in regular yield trial for one year during 2015-16 and in Provincial Uniform Barley Yield Trial (PUBYT) for continuous two years during 2016-17 to 2017-18. It performed better than commercial check variety of Haider-93 by 3.78% more yield in regular yield trial and 22.41 and 8.04% high grain yield in provincial trials during both years. In national uniform barley yield trial, the purposed hull-less line also excelled the yield than the check variety by 1.72% in 2018-19 and 12.9% in 2019-20. It performed also best under rainfed areas by giving 3.76% more yield than the check during 2017-18 and 23% during 2018-19.

Disease, infestation was also found resistant. The seed is amber in colour with shape of elliptical. Protein content in the proposed genotype is ranging from 12-14.4% while thousand grain weight was found from 37-40 gram. It was found lodging tolerant and shattering resistant. The mentioned genotype (Talbinah-21) was approved in 2021 by Punjab Seed Council (PSC) for different ecological zones across the province for general cultivation.

Original Research Article

POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE SHOOTS EXTRACTS FROM Rubus idaeus L

DJAMILA AMENI, SALIHA DJIDEL, MERIEM DJARMOUNI, SEDDIK KHENNOUF, LEKHMICI ARRAR, ABDERRAHMANE BAGHIANI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 10-19

Biomolecules are largely found at different parts in divers medicinal plants. This study aims to quantify polyphenols and some biological properties of the areal part of Rubus idaeus L. plant. The shoots of Rubus idaeus L. were extracted by a methanol-water mixture. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by different in vitro assays ; linoleic acid emulsion model system, ß-carotene-linoleate model system, DPPH reduction, free radical-scavenging activity, and reducing ability assay. The highest levels of polyphenolic compounds was observed in the ethyl acetate extract (EAE). In linoleic acid test, chloroform extract (CHE) had the strongest antioxidant in comparison with butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) (64. 549 ± 0. 007%). In b-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay, the crude extract (CE) had the highest antioxidant capacity. The results showed that EAE showed the strongest antioxidant activity as measured by radicals scavenging activities and reducing power.The present work provide evidence that the areal part extracts of R. idaeus has remarkable antioxidant activities.

Original Research Article

EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF Actinidia deliciosa EXTRACT FOR SKIN REVITALIZATION

SADIA RAFIQUE, KANWAL IRSHAD, NADIA AFSHEEN, ROMANA RIAZ, SIDRA MEER, RIZWANA KAUSAR, MUHAMMAD SHERAZ QURESHI, MUHAMMAD ISHFAQ KHAN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 20-31

Background: The research project was designed to prepare the emulgel (O/W) from extract of Actinidia deliciosa to evaluate its effects on the skin of human.

Aim: To evaluate emulgels as a base prepared from fruit Actinidia deliciosa which was expected to reduce the erythema, melanin and sebum level of skin as well as to increase the moisture content in the skin and increase elasticity.

Methods: The emulgels (O/W) prepared from Actinidia deliciosa fruit extract. The prepared formulation contained 5% extract and base (extract exclude) were applied for the period of 3 months on the cheeks of 13 healthy female volunteer. The melanin, erythema, elasticity, moisture contents and sebum of skin were measured at baseline and then evaluate the effect of prepared formulation after every 14 days during the whole experimental period.

Results: The results obtained from formulation gel against base gel for skin melanin, erythema, sebum, elasticity and moisture contents showed the significant effect.

Conclusions: The prepared formulation was declared to be suitable anti-wrinkle, anti-aging, skin whitening agent and used for the treatment of many different dermatological preparations such as acne.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FLOWER QUALITY OF GLADIOLUS IN PAKISTAN

HAYAT KHAN, FAHAD NAZIR, SHAHID NADEEM, JUNAID KHAN, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL, MUHAMMAD ZAHID ASLAM, ARSHAD HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD AAMER, SYED WAQAR HUSSAIN SHAH, AZAZ KABIR, MANSOOR ALI, IKRAM ULLAH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 42-48

Gladiolus is one of the leading bulbous flowers due to the high demand of its double row spikes of different colors in domestic and international markets. Gladiolus flower quality and growth performance are largely depending on growing media, environmental condition but planting dates are considered as key factor which effect the growth indices and quality attributes of the flowers. To evaluate the effect of different sowing dates on growth and flowering of gladiolus, a study was conducted at National Agriculture Research Council Islamabad (NARC) during the year of 2017. Results revealed that sowing date of gladiolus flower significantly affect the reproductive and vegetative phase of plants. It has been observed that seed emergence and spike length was enhanced when seeds were sown at initial dates as compared to late sowing. In contrary to these, plant height and rachis length was reduced at early sowing dates but significantly increased with sowing of seeds at later dates. Overall, it has been concluded from the present study that gladiolus growth performance and flowers quality are improved when seeds were sown at earlier dates compared to late sowing.

Original Research Article

AUSAF; A HIGH FODDER YIELDING SORGHUM VARIETY WITH BETTER NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND SILAGE QUALITY

GHULAM AHMAD, ANEES UL HUSSNAIN SHAH, MUHAMMAD NADEEM, ABDUL JABBAR, MUHAMMAD ASLAM, AFTAB AHMAD KHAN, AHMAD HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD SHAKEEL HANIF, ABDUL BASIT, MUHAMMAD TANVEER AHMAD KALYAR, SULEMAN RAZA, SULTAN ALI BAZMI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 49-57

The demand of high fodder yielding varieties of sorghum with better nutritional quality is increasing by the livestock farmers. The cultivation of high yielding fodder crops is compulsory need of the era for livestock industry development, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Development of high fodder yielding varieties which have better nutritional value is a dire need for this region. In this regard, Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, Pakistan has developed a new sorghum variety ‘Ausaf’ having high green fodder yield and better nutritional value. This variety is an outcome of the selection from local germplasm line S-145 during 2009-2017. It has proved its worth in all the yield trials and its performance is better than the existing Sorghum-2011 variety. It produced 11.60% and 8.25% higher green fodder yield as compared to check variety sorghum-2011 in National Uniform Fodder Yield Trials. Moreover, its green fodder contains 20.88% dry matter, 8.75% protein, 26.94% crude fiber and 3.18% crude fat. The new variety showed that it was moderately resistant to red leaf spot and long smut. Agronomic studies revealed that it is fit in a better way with the existing agronomic practices.

Original Research Article

INFLUENCE OF HUMIC ACID ON VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE ATTRIBUTES OF AFRICAN MARIGOLD (Tagetes erecta L.)

MUHAMMAD KAMRAN AZAM, IBADULLAH JAN, ADNAN GHANI, AYESHA KAMAL, AKHTIAR AHMED KALHORO, MUHAMMAD ZAHID ASLAM, SHAHID NADEEM, SYED WAQAR HUSSAIN SHAH, MUHAMMAD AAMER, SADIA NOUREEN ZAFAR, ARSHAD HUSSAIN, IKRAM ULLAH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 58-67

The study entitled ‘influence of humic acid on vegetative and reproductive attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)’ was studied at Agricultural Research Station Swabi during 2017. The main aim of this study was to find out the adequate dose of humic acid that can enhance vegetative and reproductive qualities of marigold. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications. Four different concentrations (0, 1000ppm, 2000ppm, 3000ppm) of humic acid were sprayed during vegetative and reproductive stages of marigold plants. Humic acid was sprayed twice, 1st spray before reproductive stage and 2nd spray after the bud formation. The effect of humic acid on marigold was evaluated for plant height, number of leaves plant-1, stem diameter, blooms plant-1, blossom diameter, and blossom fresh and dry weight. Provision of humic acid at 1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm concentration ranges resulted in linear increase in leaves of a plant, stem diameter, plant height, blooms plant-1, blossom diameter, fresh and dry weight of blossom. But plants sprayed with 2000 ppm humic acid were effective for most of the parameters that can increase profit in marigold flowers business.

Original Research Article

STORAGE AND PRE-SOWING TREATMENT AFFECT SEED GERMINATION OF Cinnamomum balansae H. LEC TREE

LE VAN QUANG, NGUYEN VIEN, HOANG VAN THANG, DAO THI HUYEN, BUI KIEU HUNG, NGUYEN VAN THO, VO DAI NGUYEN, TRAN VAN DO

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 68-76

Cinnamomum balansae H. Lec. is an endemic forest tree species of Vietnam. The species has valuable essential oil and timber used for furniture. Growing this species has a high potential for poverty reduction in mountainous areas. Therefore, the effects of storage and pre-sowing treatment on seed germination of C. balansae were studied. Three treatments of seed storage included in a refrigerator at 5oC, room condition, and moisture sand. Three temperature levels for pre-sowing treatment included 30oC, 40oC, and 50oC waters. The results indicated that seeds stored in a refrigerator at 5oC had the highest germination rate of 75.7% after 15 days. However, the rate was still lower than the control (84.3%) by sowing seeds immediately after collecting from mother trees. The longer storage duration led to a lower seed germination rate in all three treatments. Seeds treated in 30oC water for 6 hours had the highest germination rate (84%). While seed germination reduced with increased temperature. In conclusion, seeds of C. balansae must be sown right after collecting from mother trees. Before sowing to the sand bed, seeds should be treated by soaking in 30oC water for 6 hours.

Review Article

A REVIEW ON AVOCADO FRUIT: DESCRIPTION, MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, COMPOSITION, NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS AND PROPAGATION TECHNIQUE

MUHAMMAD AFZAL, ATTIQ AKHTAR, RIAZ ALI BUKHARI, SYED ZIA UL HASAN, HASEEB SYED

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 32-41

The objective or aim of this review paper presents a review of the description, characteristics, composition, and nutritional benefits of avocado fruit (Persea americana). Avocado is also called one of the most important tropical fruits, as it contains beneficial nutrients which are less common in other fruits, as it contains high levels of protein, potassium, and unsaturated fatty acids. The fruit possesses health benefits mainly due to its composition, such as omega fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and squalene. It also functions in reducing cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The researchers predict the benefits of avocado and its nutritional characteristics; their disposition is to increase the production and utilization of this raw material. In Pakistan, the avocado research started in 1955 at Hill fruit Research Station Sunny Bank Murree. This review paper also aims to highlight the current propagation technique of avocado which is currently used all over the world and also review the report on 2021 global avocado market production and what it will be its future expected.