Main Article Content



The attractive colours and fragrances produced by the plants are due to specific phytochemicals present in them. The objective of this study was to find out some physio-chemical parameters of leaves and stems of plants, and the presence of phytochemicals, carbohydrate, proteins, and antioxidant activity by hydrogen peroxides scavenging assay in the ethanolic and hydroethanolic extract of Adansonia digitata in both leaves and stems by qualitative screening method. In qualitative analysis, the presence of phytochemicals compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, tanins, phenols, anthraquinoes, flavonoids, steroids, terpinoids were determined in the ethanolic and hydroethanolic extract by standard methods. Results concluded that the presence of this active compound may be responsible for the medicinal exploitation of the plant. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity significantly increases with concentration. The phenolic and vitamin C content in the baobab leaf fraction played a significant role in the antioxidant activity due to reducing mechanisms.

Adansonia digitata, medicinal plant, phytochemicals, qualitative screening

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Research Article


Rabe T, van Staden JV. Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56 (1):81-87.

Sidibe M, Williams JT. Baobab, Adansonia digitata L. crops for the future. International Center for underutilized crops (ICUC); University of Southampton, Southampton. Food Nutr Sci. 2006; 9(8, August 13).

Gracelin DH, Britto AJ, Kumar BJR. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in five Pteris species. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012; 5 Sppl: 105-7.

Hänke H, Börjeson L, Hylander K, Enfors- Kautsky E. Drought tolerant species dominate as rainfall and tree cover returns in the West African Sahel. Land Use Policy. 2016; 59:111-20.

Cuni Sanchez A, Haq N, Assogbadjo AE. Variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) leaf morphology and its relation to drought tolerance. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2010; 57(1):17-25.

Gebauer J, El-Siddig K, Ebert G. Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): A review on a multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan. Gartenbauwissenschaft. 2002; 4(67):155-60.

Dan S, Dan SS. Phytochemical study of Adansonia. A text of higher learning. In: Donal publisher. 2nd ed. 1986; 59:174, 8.

Sidibe M, Williams JT. Baobab. Adansonia digitata Fruits for future. Southampton, UK: International Center for Underutilized Crops. 2002; 96.

Yazzie D, Vanderjagt DJ, Pastuszyn A, Okolo A, Glew RH. The amino acid and mineral content of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Leaves. J Food Compos Anal. 1994; 7(3):189-193.

Barminas JT, Charles M, Emmanuel D. Mineral composition of non- conventional leafy vegetable. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998; 53(1):29-36.

Lockett CT, Grivetti LE. Food-related behaviours during drought study of rural Fulani Northeast Nigeria. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000; 51(2):91-107.

Thomson RH. The chemistry of natural products. 2nd ed, Springer Netherland. 1993;109.

Okuda T, Ito H. Tannins of constant structure in medicinal and food plant- hydrolysable tannins and polyphenols related to tannins. Molecules. 2011; 16(3):2191-217.

Madland E. Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation of saponins from Herniaria incana [Ph.D. thesis]. Department of Chemistry, Norway: Norwegian University of Science and Technology; 2013.

Baum DA. A systematic revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Ann Mo Bot Gard. 1995; 82(3):440-471.

Das K, Tiwari RKS, Shrivastava DK. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: current methods and future trends. J Med Plants. 2010; 4(2):104-11.

Okeke MI, Iroegbu CU, Eze EN, Okoli AS, Esimone CO. Evaluation of extract of the roots of Landolpbia owerience for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmcology. 2001; 78(2-3):119-127.

Trease GE, Evans . Pharmacognasy, WB. London: Scandars Company Ltd. 1989; 14;269-300.

Kaufmann B, Christen P. Recent extraction techniques for natural products: Microwave assisted extraction and pressurized solvent extraction. Phytochem. Anal. 2002; 13(2): 105-13.

Nivedithadevi D, Somasandaram R. Pharmacognostical and qualitative phytochemical studies on the aerial parts of Tephrosla purpurea (L.). Int J Res Biol Sci. 2012; 2(2):48-53.

Chaudhari RK, Girase NO. Determination of soluble extractive and physico-chemical studies of bark of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. J Chem Pharm Res. 2015; 7(8):657- 660.

Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy, technique and experiments. Nirali Prakashan. 9th ed. 2002;23. 10-1 and 25.1- 6.

Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemicals screening and extraction: A review international Pharmaceutical Sciencia. 2011; 1(1): 98-106.

Gul R, Jan SU, Syed F, Sherani F, Nusrat J. Preliminary phytochemical screening, quantitative analysis of alkaloids, and antioxidants activity of crude plant extracts from Ephedra intermedia Indigenous to Balochistan. Sci World J. 2017; 1-7.

Tyagi T. Phytochemicals screening of Active Metabolites Present in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.). Solms and Pistia stratiotes (L). Role Ethanomedicine Asian J Pharm Educ Res. 2017; 6(4):40-56.

Audu SA, Mohammad I, Kaita HA. Phytochemical screening of the leaves of Lophira lanceolata (Ochanaceae). Life Science Journal; 2007; 4(4):75-79.

Basumatary AR. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of some compounds from plant stem bark extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. Used by Bodo community at Kokrajhar District, Assam, India. Arch Appl Sci Res. 2016; 8(8):476-452.

Njoku OV, Obi C. Phytochemicals constitutions of some selected medicinal plants. Afr. J Pure Appl Chem. 2009; 3(11):228-233.

Kumar V, Jat RK. Phytochemical estimation of medicinal plant Achyranthes aspera Root. International Journal of Research in. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2018; 3(1):190-3.

Singh V, Kumar R. Study of phytochemicals and antioxidants activity of Allium sativum of Bhundelkhand Region. Int J Life Sci Sci Res. 2017;3 (6):1451-8.

Raaman N. Phytochemicals techniques. New Delhi: New India Published Agency; 2006; 19-24.

Kareru PG, Keriko JM, Gachanja AN. Direct detection of triterpenoid saponins in medicinal plant. Afr J Trad Cam. 2008; 5(1):56-60.

Kumar RS, Venkateshwar C, Samuel G, Rao SG. Phytochemical screening of some compounds from plant leaf extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (planch).and celesturs Emarginata (Grah) used by Gondu tribes at Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Eng Sci Invent. 2013; 2(8):65- 70.

María R, Shirley M, Xavier C, Jaime S, David V, Rosa S, Preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of thirteen native species from Guayas Province Ecuador. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2018; 30(4):500-505.

Silva GO, Abeysundara AT, Aponso MM. Extraction methods, qualitative and quantitative techniques for screening of phytochemicals from plants. Am J Essent Oils Nat Prod. 2017; 5(2):29-32.

Dehpour AA, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM. Antixoidant activity of the methanolic extract of ferula asafoetida and its essential oil components. Grases Aceites. 2009; 60 (4):405-12.

Uma KS, Parthiban P, Kalpana S. Pharmacognostical and Preliminary, Phytochemicals Screening of Aavaarai Vidhai Chooranam. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research; 2017; 10(10):111-116.

Goel C, Dutta R. Adansonia digitata: A mythological tree has several nutritional and medicinal properties. Plant Cell Biotechnol Mol Biol. 2021; 22(57-58):16- 20.