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Probiotics are healthy, bacteria friendly. These are nutrients which have been shown to have particular health benefits such as promoting gut health and helping maintain a balanced gut microbiota, which is essential for proper functioning of digestive system and the whole body. Whereas all yogurts live and active cultures, not all have probiotic strains which provide particular health benefits like supporting gut health and helping maintain a balanced gut microbiota. Various bacteria and fungi may contaminate the milk and dairy products. Investigations have shown that the contamination in traditional yogurt is higher than that which is processed industrially. Raw milk including high water activity and neutral pH serves as a great source of development for different microorganisms, thereby contaminating the prepared yogurts. Microbial infection, the existence of infectious bacteria and viruses are the main and most common problem for yoghurt health. The presence of yeasts and molds in commercial yogurt shows poor hygienic procedures in processing and packaging. Aflatoxins are a group of highly toxic fungal metabolites formed in milk and dairy products by toxic strains of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius. To minimize their potential health threat and economic problems, it is important to alert producers and consumers about the quality and pollution of yogurt. As regards the safety and health effects of probiotics, the consumption of probiotic yogurt is recommended.

Beneficial microbes, industrial yogurt, microbiota, probiotics, nonprobiotic, traditional yoghurt

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