Main Article Content
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) disease that has become a public health emergency situation of global recognition. The World Health Organization has declared the novel virus to belong to the coronavirus of the bat origin as its natural host, and transmitted from human to human contact through droplets from coughs, sneeze or contacts with contaminated surfaces, with clinical manifestation of symptoms such as; difficulty in breath, dry coughs, fatigue and fever. An update of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria up to on the 26th of April, 2020 clearly revealed that the epidemic according to the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control [NCDC] has a total of 1,273 confirmed cases with a spread across 33 states of Nigeria. The death rate recorded remained at 44 with a total of 994 active confirmed cases and 239 recovered cases. The response of the Nigerian government towards containing the spread of the global pandemic is quite commendable as various state governments have implemented high-quality surveillance and intensifying preparedness against the COVID-19 disease. However, reports have indicated that the needed health facilities and drug for detection, isolation, testing and control strategy has been grossly inadequate to cover the 36 states of Nigeria including Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Presently, there are no proven treatment options for COVID-19 rather than adopting the key preventive strategy guidelines by the federal government which requires stay at home, avoid direct human contacts, and maintain social distance, washing of hands regularly with soap and water while taking responsibility by reporting suspicious cases to appropriate authorities.
Koonin EV, Starokadomskyy P. Are viruses alive? The replicator paradigm shed decisive light on an old but misguided question. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2016;59:125–34.
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation reports 2020. [Online].
(Retrieved on 29th April, 2020)
Li T, Wei CW, Li W, Hongwei F, Shi J. Beijing Union Medical College Hospital on "Pneumonia of novel coronavirus infection" diagnosis and treatment proposal (V2.0). Med J Peking Union Med Coll Hosp.; 2020.
(Retrieved on 2nd Feb 2020)
Available:http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.5882.r. 20200130.1430.002. html
Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: Causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Semin. Immunopathol. 2017;39:529–539.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coronavirus Disease 2019 [COVID-19]; 2019.
Hui M. Why won’t the World Health Organization call the coronavirus by its name, SARS-CoV-2? Quartz; 2020.
(Retrieved 30th March 2020)
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature; 2020.
(Retrieved on 29th April, 2020)
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control [NCDC]. COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria Situation Report S/N: 033; 2020a.
(Retrieved on 29th of April, 2020)
World Health Organization, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak 2019; 2019.
(Retrieved on 25th March, 2020)
National Institute of Health [NIH]. Reports First Known Employee with COVID-19 Infection; 2020.
(Retrieved on the 30th March, 2020)
Yi Y, Lagniton P, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID-19: What has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J. Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1753–1766.
Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature; 2020. [Epub ahead of print].
(Retrieved on 28th March, 2020)
Hoffman M, Kliene-Weber H, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020;181:1–10.
deHaan CAM, Kuo L, Masters PS, Vennema H, Rottier PJM. Coronavirus particle assembly: Primary structure requirements of the membrane protein. J Virol. 1998;72(8):6838-6850.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID]. Micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions; 2020.
(Retrieved on the 1st of April, 2020)
Jia HP, Look DC, Shi L, Hickey M, Pewe L, Netland J. ACE2 receptor expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection depend on differentiation of human airway epithelia. J Virol. 2005;79(23):14614–14621.
Hu B, Zeng LP, Yang XL, Ge XY, Zhang W, Li B, Xie JZ, Shen XR, Zhang YZ, Wang N, Luo DS, Zheng XS, Wang MN, Dazak P, Wang LF, Cui J, Shim Z. Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(11):1-27.
Anthony SJ, Gilardi K, Menachery VD, Goldstein T, Ssebide B, Mbabazi R, Navarrete IM, Liang E, Wells H, Hicks A, Petrosov A, Byarugaba DK, Debbink K, Dinnon KH, Scobey T, Randell SH, Yount BL, Cranfield M, Johnson CK, Baric RS, Lipkin WI, Mazet JA. Further evidence for bats as the evolutionary source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. mBio. 2017;8:373-417.
Yan-Rong G, Qing-Dong C, Zhong SH, Yuan-Yang T, Shou-Deng C, Hong-Jun J, Kai-Sen T, De-Yun W, Yan Y. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Military Medical Research. 2020;7(11): 1-10.
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. Public health advisory to Nigerians on novel coronavirus (#3); 2020b. [Online].
(Retrieved on 30 March, 2020)
Adhikari S, Meng S, Wu Y. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9:29.
Jelili OM, Kamoru AA, Idris NA. Public health preparedness towards COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020;13:1-2.
Agbakwuru J. Buhari sets up 12 member task force to control coronavirus. The Vanguard Newspaper; 2020.
(Retrieved 21st April, 2020)
Daka F. Buhari names task force on coronavirus. The Guardian Newspaper; 2020.
(Retrieved 21st April, 2020)
Okafor T. Anambra orders closure of schools over coronavirus. The Punch Newspaper; 2020.
(Retrieved 30th March, 2020)
Abiola O. An Address by H. E. Muhammadu Buhari, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on the COVID-19 pandemic. The Vanguard Newspaper; 2020.
(Retrieved 31st March, 2020)
National Health Commission of China. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment for novel coronavirus pneumonia (fifth edition); 2020a.
(Retrieved 14 April 2020)
National Health Commission of China. Diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV; 2020b.
(Retrieved 25 April 2020)
World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected; 2020.
(Retrieved 1st April, 2020)
Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, Shi Y. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020;20:398–400.
Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med.; 2020. [Epub ahead of print].
Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. Correspondence: The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine. 2020;26(4):450-452.