Journal of Global Agriculture and Ecology <p><strong>Journal of Global Agriculture and Ecology (ISSN: 2454-4205)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers in all areas of ‘Agriculture and Ecology’. This journal considers following&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/JOGAE/about/submissions">types of papers</a>&nbsp;(<a href="/index.php/JOGAE/about/submissions">Link)</a>.</p> <p>The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a peer reviewed, subscription based INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US (International Knowledge Press) (International Knowledge Press) Thu, 19 May 2022 11:43:05 +0000 OJS 60 ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYMILK BEVERAGE <p>This research work is aimed at evaluating microbial quality of soy milk taken by the populace in Enugu and verifying the safety standard of soymilk consumed by Nigerians in general. A collection of ten samples of soy milk locally sourced and produced by their makers were used for this research. The pour plate method was used to determine number of microbes present as well as the identity of the microbes. Biochemical tests were carried out on the isolates to determine using standard techniques. The microbial count and types of isolates showed a low hygienic standard of soymilk production, which will in turn result to a public health problem among the numerous consumers. The soymilk samples were seen to contain disease-causing bacteria like <em>Staphylococcus aureus.</em> This research shows that the quality of some of the commercially marketed soymilk products sold in Enugu, Nigeria needs to be properly analysed in respect to evaluation of its quality to avoid dissemination of diseases or pathogens to final consumers. It is important also, that manufacturers of these soymilk products must be properly educated about Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as this will ensure that products are free of disease-causing microorganisms. Examination for microbial contaminants showed bacterial counts as high as 8.2 x 10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml. The study showed some level of contamination of the selected samples with fecal coliforms such as <em>Escherichia coli</em>. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was also reported in some samples. These findings reflect low hygienic standards of production, which causes public health problems in the population.</p> C. C. EZEMBA, N. N. AJAH, C. C. EZEJIOFOR, A. S. EZEMBA, C. M. EZEOKOLI, O. J. OSUALA, P. C. OKOYE, I. W. UDOYE, J. C. MMADUEKWE, V. O. ETIKUDIKE, V. N. ANAKWENZE ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ENHANCEMENT OF GROWTH AND YIELD QUALITY OF ONION PLANT VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BIO-STIMULANTS UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES <p>There are environmental hazards of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, however, there is a general tendency to raise the yield and quality of strategic crops in Egypt <em>i.e.,</em> onion plant. Also, a little is known about the joint effects of different nitrogen sources as soil addition plus foliar spraying with bio-stimulants on onion plants. Thus, this research paper aims to assess the possibility of using compost as a partial substitute for synthetic nitrogen fertilizer with onion plants sprayed with some bio stimulants. During two successive seasons (2020/2021 and 2021/2022), a field trial was performed aiming to evaluate the effect of nitrogen recommended dose (NRD) via different nitrogen sources <em>i.e.,</em> plant compost (2.0 %N)<strong>,</strong> ammonium sulphate (21.0%N)<strong>,</strong> urea (46.5%N) and ammonium nitrate (33.5%N) and some bio stimulates on onion plant and some soil properties. The nitrogen treatments [<strong>N<sub>1</sub></strong>:40% of NRD as plant compost +20% of NRD as ammonium sulphate + 20% of NRD as urea+20% of NRD as ammonium nitrate, <strong>N<sub>2</sub></strong>:100% of NRD as ammonium sulphate, <strong>N<sub>3</sub></strong>:100% of NRD as urea and<strong> N<sub>4</sub></strong>:100% of NRD as ammonium nitrate] represented the main plots, while foliar application of bio-stimulants represented the sub main plots, where the foliar application treatments were <strong>F<sub>1</sub>:</strong> without (control), <strong>F<sub>2</sub></strong>: liquorice extract (7.50 gL<sup>-1</sup>);<strong> F<sub>3</sub></strong>: garlic extract (350.0 ml L<sup>-1</sup>) and <strong>F<sub>4</sub></strong>: yeast extract (7.5 gL<sup>-1</sup>).The findings indicate that onion plants grown under <strong>N<sub>1</sub></strong> treatment had growth, yield and quality traits better than the corresponding onion plants grown under other nitrogen treatments, where <strong>N<sub>2</sub></strong> treatment came in the second order and <strong>N<sub>3</sub> </strong>treatment came in the third order, while <strong>N<sub>4</sub></strong> treatment came in the last order. Regarding foliar application, the plants sprayed with garlic extract (<strong>F<sub>3</sub></strong>) had the highest values of studied traits followed by that sprayed with liquorice extract (<strong>F<sub>2</sub></strong>) then that spayed with yeast extract <strong>(F<sub>4</sub>) </strong>and lately that grown without bio stimulants <strong>(F<sub>1</sub>)</strong>. Generally, the best performance of onion plants was recorded under N fertilization of 40% of NRD as plant compost + 20 % of NRD as ammonium sulphate + 20 % of NRD as urea+ 20 % of NRD as ammonium nitrate and spraying, simultaneously, with garlic extract. Also, all studied soil properties like soil EC, pH, Om and available N differed due to all studied treatments. Thus, it can be confirmed the possibility of using plant compost as a partial substitute for mineral N fertilizer with onion plants sprayed with some bio stimulants.</p> M. A. EL-SHERPINY, MARWA A. KANY, HANAA M. SAKARA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FIRST REPORT OF STEM GUMMOSIS AND LEAF BLIGHT DISEASE IN Momordica charantia CAUSED BY Lasiodiplodia theobromae <p><em>Momordica charantia </em>is native to India and tropical Asia. During September 2017- December 2018 field survey was carried out nearly 5 hectares of bitter gourd growing areas in Mysuru taluks and KR Nagar taluks, with incidence of 20-30%. The fungal pathogen responsible for this disease was isolated on the PDA media. Initially colonies were pale grey in colour gradually becoming dark gray, and septate mycelia was observed. Initially conidia were aseptate and glassy later turned to dark brown, two-celled and thick-walled. By considering all these culture characters, the isolated fungus was identified as <em>Lasiodiplodia </em>species. For species level identification, molecular characterisation through PCR using specific ITS1 and ITS4 - rDNA primers was carried out. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the data obtained from nBLAST, which confirmed the pathogen as <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae</em>. In GenBank the representative isolate was deposited (Accession number MN891762.1, MN891763.1). The pathogenicity test was performed on one month old bitter gourd plant inoculated with mycelia suspension of <em>L. theobromae</em>. Identity of pathogen was conformed through re-isolation of pathogen from experimental plant. <em>In vitro </em>fungicidal activity was also carried out. The present work is the first report of stem gummosis and leaf blight disease on bitter gourd caused by <em>L. theobromae</em>.</p> RAMESH SOWBHAGYA SAVITHA, RAJKUMAR H. GARAMPALLI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CORRELATION BETWEEN CO2 ASSIMILATION RATES AND OTHER GAS EXCHANGE PARAMETERS OF Hevea WITH REFERENCE TO COMMENCEMENT OF TAPPING <p>The present study was supplement to a longer experiment to determine the feasibility of early commencement of tapping of two <em>Hevea </em>genotypes i.e. RRIC121 and RRISL 211. The main objective of this study was to develop a correlations between CO<sub>2</sub> assimilation rates and other leaf gas exchange parameters of <em>Hevea </em>with reference to the commencement of tapping. Tapped and untapped trees of two <em>Hevea </em>genotypes, i.e. RRIC121 and RRISL 211 at the same age were selected for the study. All cultural practices were performed according to the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka. To evaluate the significance of differences between all possible pairs of treatment means, mean separation of treatments was performed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The strength of the relationships between yield and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters was estimated by linear correlation analysis. The leaf gas exchange parameters were measured under optimal environmental conditions clearly showed the intercellular CO<sub>2</sub> concentration (Ci) gradually decrease with increasing light intensity in both clones. The same trend was observed in the different canopy layers under both tapping treatments. The highest leaf-air vapour pressure deficit (lvpd) was shown in the leaves of the upper canopy and lowest in the bottom canopy layer. Furthermore, the water use efficiency (WUE) of clone RRISL 211 was higher than that of clone RRIC 121 under tapping. This was primarily because of the greater photosynthetic rates of RRISL 211, rather than lower transpiration rates.When considering the correlation analysis of gas exchange parameters of <em>Hevea</em>, CO<sub>2</sub> assimilation rate (A) had highly significant correlations with gs, Tr and intensity of PAR. However, the absence of a correlation between PAR and WUE showed that, when PAR increases both A and Tr increase in similar magnitudes. Therefore, WUE remains approximately constant. The presence or absence of correlations in gas exchange parameters of tapped and untapped treatments were broadly similar to the overall correlation analysis. In the tapped treatments, because of tapping, the photosynthetic rate is stimulated relative to the transpiration rate. The positive latex yield response to WUE and lvpd of top leaves indicates that, in top leaves when lvpd increases transpiration also increases accordingly. Hence WUE and ivpd increase latex flow within the tree and finally increase the latex yield with increasing latex volume. On the other hand, latex yield has a negative correlation with gs. The study findings clearly revealed that, in top leaves reduced Ci increases the CO<sub>2</sub> gradient and uptake of CO<sub>2</sub> for more photosynthesis, which increases the latex yield. Faster utilization of absorbed Ci may enhance the yield potential.</p> H. K. L. K. GUNASEKERA, W. A. J. M. DE COSTA, A. NUGAWELA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PHYSIOLOGICAL, VEGETATIVE, AND PRODUCTION RESPONSES OF PEACH TO SUSTAINED DEFICIT IRRIGATION <p>Low rainfall and poor rainfall in recent years in Morocco, have led to a situation of water deficit throughout the cropping cycle, including stone fruits. The study was carried out to investigate the behavior of peach trees under sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) in the Sais plain as well as to determine the optimal irrigation dose that would guarantee an improvement in productivity and quality of the peach trees. This experiment used completely randomized design with 3 replications. The study was carried out (in two replications in 2017 and 2018) four water regimes throughout the whole development cycles of peach trees: T0 (equal to or greater than 100% of the crop's Evapotranspiration (ETc)), T1 (100% ETc), T2 (80% ETc) and T3 (60% ETc). The response of trees is presented for physiological indicators – vegetative development, production and quality parameters for the two years. The effect of SDI on peach trees showed that water restrictions varied according to the water regime. The decrease in irrigation rate negatively affected the main vegetative and production parameters. However, for the 20% decrease in irrigation rate, the effect on yield was not significant. Regarding vegetative growth, the T3 (60%ETc) water regime significantly affected the increase in length and diameter of the current year's shoots, while the T2 (80 % ETc) water regime did not affect leaf area. Trees from treatment T3 (60 % ETc) yielded fruits with the highest sugar content. This increase in sugar content was accompanied by a decrease in the total acidity of the fruit juice.</p> MERIAME LAITA, ZERHOUNE MESSAOUDI, RACHID BENKIRANE, HOUSSAIN AITHADDOU ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 POSSIBILITY OF USING CLOVER RESIDUES, GREEN MANURES AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE OF MINERAL NITROGEN FERTILIZER TO WHEAT PLANTS GROWN ON NORMAL AND SALINE SOILS <p>Reducing synthetic nitrogen fertilization is an important issue nowadays due to its environmental hazards and raising the soil quality. So a field trial was executed aiming to assess the possibility of using clover residuals and green manure as a partial substitute for mineral nitrogen fertilizer for wheat plants grown on normal and saline soils. The green manure, as the main factor, was Egyptian clover (variety FAHL), split-plot design with three replicates was used were the main treatments were as follows; <strong>M<sub>1</sub></strong>: without green manure (soil without cultivation between rice and wheat), <strong>M<sub>2</sub>:</strong> tillage of clover roots alone with soil and <strong>M<sub>3</sub>:</strong> tillage the whole plant with soil. While, the sub-main factor consisted of three rates of mineral N fertilizers <em>i.e.,</em> 100, 75, and 50 % of nitrogen recommended dose (NRD) for wheat as mineral fertilizer. Regarding the effect of green manure, the <strong>M<sub>3</sub></strong> treatment was superior compared to others. Concerning N treatments, 100% of NRD as mineral fertilizer was superior compared to other rates. On the other hand, in both soils (normal &amp; saline) the wheat plants which received 75 % of NRD as mineral fertilizer and simultaneously fertilized with Egyptian clover as green manure (<strong>M<sub>3</sub></strong>) realized performance and productivity as similar as the corresponding wheat plants which received 100 % of NRD as mineral fertilizer without green manure (<strong>M<sub>1</sub></strong>) or in other words, there weren't significant between them for the most of studied parameters. The studied green manure increased nutrient uptake and enhanced the synthesis of chlorophyll in the tissues of the wheat plants grown in either non- saline or saline soils and this may be the reason for increasing the ability of wheat to tolerate salinity. Generally, it can be concluded that mineral N fertilizer rates could be reduced after the incorporation of Egyptian clover as green manures having high nutrient contents and increased nitrogen use efficiency in saline soil which increases wheat yield.</p> MOSHIRA A. EL-SHAMY, KHOLOUD A. EL-NAQMA, M. A. EL-SHERPINY ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF NORMAL BENTONITE CLAY, MINERAL FERTILIZERS, AND IRRIGATION REGIME ON WINTER WHEAT <p>In addition to the norm N<sub>150</sub>P<sub>105</sub>K<sub>75</sub> kg/ha of mineral fertilizers for winter wheat under conditions of typical gray soils of the Tashkent region, 3000 kg/ha of bentonite clay was applied for plowing, with soil moisture before irrigation during the growing season in the irrigation mode 60-70-60 and 70-80- 70% of the LFMC at the end of the growing season, the bulk density of the soil relative to the control variant decreased to 0,03-0,05 g/cm<sup>3</sup> in the 0-30 cm. layer and to 0,07-0,11 g/cm<sup>3</sup> in the 30-50 layer see, an increase in soil water permeability from 30 m<sup>3</sup> to 100 m<sup>3</sup>/ha was noted. When irrigating under irrigation regimes of 60–70–60 and 70–80–70% of the LFMC and additional application of bentonite clay at a rate of 3000 kg/ha against the background of mineral fertilizers at a rate of N<sub>150</sub>P<sub>105</sub>K<sub>75</sub> kg/ha, the increase in grain yield was 11,9–13,4 c/ha, and the level of profitability increased by 18,9–21,1% compared to the control.</p> ABDULLAEV ISMOILJON IBRAHIMJONOVICH ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES IN ERRAHAD LOCALITY, SUDAN, USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS <p>The study aimed to identify, assess and mapping of land use and land cover in the period of 1985 to 2015 in Errahad Locality in North Kordofan State, Sudan. In addition, to investigate the impacts of socio-economic activities on land use and land cover. Three landsat images with multi-temporal dates (TM 1985, TM 1995 and Landsat8 OLI 2015) were acquired in dry season. The images were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected. Image classifications using supervised classification system by maximum likelihood were applied. A total number of 200 control points were registered using GPS. In the social survey, 50 respondents representing household were randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire with sampling percentage of 6% of the household in five villages. Remotely sensed data were processed and analyzed using ERDAS 9.1 and ArcGIS10.0 software, while social survey data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS. version18.0. Results showed that land use and land cover in Errahad Locality were identified and classified into six classes; bare lands, range lands, forests, agricultural lands, shrub lands and water bodies. The change of land use and land cover during the period 1985, 1995 and 2015 is indicated by the increase of agricultural lands as 14.34%, 23.08 and 28.87%, respectively. Also the range lands were increased from 23.46% (1995) to 26.04% (2015). However, during the same periods, forests and shrubs classes are decreasing from 14.61% to 11.56% and from 27.42% to 12.43%, respectively. The overall accuracy assessment of classified imagery from TM (1985), ETM+ (1995) and landsat8 LOI (2015) revealed 81%, 84% and 91% in Kappa statistics, respectively. The results of social survey revealed that 90% of the respondents owned a piece of the land in term of personal and tribal basis. The results confirmed that 50% of the respondents stated that overcutting of the trees (50%) climate change (10%) are most factors affecting the vegetation cover and land use. The study concluded with a witnessed degradation processes mainly in vegetation cover as a consequence of agricultural land expansion. The study recommended adoption of appropriate conservation and rehabilitation measures in forest and rangelands.</p> H. E. ADAM, Y. M. OSMAN, H. M. A. ELAMIN, M. E. S. ELTAHIR ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ROLE OF Acacia senegal GARDENS TO SMALL-SCALE OF GUM ARABIC PRODUCERS IN ENNUHUD LOCALITY, WEST KORDOFAN, SUDAN <p>The study was carried out during 2017 – 2018 in Ennuhud Locality, West Kordofan Sudan to assess socio-economic profile and silvicultural practices of small-scale gum Arabic producers. Questionnaires were distributed randomly to 186 respondents in 10 villages (out of 100 villages) and associated with personal interviews and key informant methods. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results revealed that the majority of the respondents (68.3%) were farmers and gum producers who applied traditional silvicultural practices. The yield of gum Arabic was estimated by 37% and 43.9% of respondents as 1.3 - 1.7 kg/tree and 2.2 kg/tree, respectively. The study revealed that production of gum contributed to the producers' income by less than 5,000SDG and 5,000 – 10,000SDG as 47.3% and 46.2%, respectively as mentioned by responds more (62.9%) of them mentioned that the expenses of gum tapping were 3,500 SDG/8.03ha. Pests was mentioned as main factor (42.5%) affecting gum Arabic production. A significant positive correlation (R = 0.532) between gum production area and total garden area was observed, while a negative correlation (R = - 0.011) was found between costs of collection and average gum production (P= 0.01). In addition, majority (96.8%)f the respondents used their financial returns for the rehabilitation. With regard to the registration of Gum Arabic Producers Association, about 60.2% of the respondents completed the registration process. The study recommended the practice of private plantation rehabilitation process using high-yielding varieties, high advanced tapping tools and capacity building, which is considered as most developed opportunity to local communities in semi-arid areas.</p> S. O. TUTU, M. Y. A. ELNOUR, I. E. IBRAHIM, H. E. ADAM, H. M. A. ELAMIN, M. E. S. ELTAHIR ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 SALINITY STRESS EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND USE OF RHIZOBACTERIA: A REVIEW <p>Soil salinity is being recognized as a major threat to the agriculture and food production in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Accumulation of various salts creates osmotic imbalance and ionic toxicity in plants and makes crop production difficult. Plant system has developed certain adaptation strategies for tolerating the toxicity of the salts. The present review focuses on the various effects of salinity stress on physiological and biochemical aspects of plants and the role of rhizobacteria to mitigate the harmful effects of salinity stress. Induction of toxicity mechanism of salinity stress tolerance in plants along with the strategies needed to be adapted to make sustainable agriculture.</p> SADHNA CHATURVEDI, AJAY MEENA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 25 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 RESEARCH NEEDS IN AGRICULTURE AND OTHER LAND USES IN RESPONSE TO THE GREEN ECONOMY: A REVIEW <p>The United Nations Environment Programme defines a green economy as low-carbon, resource-efficient, and socially inclusive. The objective is to improve human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcity. The green economy is sustainable development without degrading the environment, developing around climate change, saving resources and management, circular economy, environmental and ecosystems protection, and natural disaster management and recovery. This paper aims to introduce discussions and brainstorm a way forward on how the Papua New Guinea University of Technology (PNGUoT) can use the expertise and resource centers and the technologies that are available to promote sustainable land and resource use and sustainable development; committing carbon emissions and pollution reduction, energy and resource use efficiency, and prevention of loss of biodiversity and ecological services. The specific roles of the PNGUoT in committing and contributing to sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are pointed out to improve rural livelihood. Several user-friendly sustainability concepts that are easy to promote by researchers are established as the way forward into the future.</p> PATRICK S. MICHAEL ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CULTURAL AND NUTRITIONAL DIMENSIONS OF THE SO-CALLED MEXICAN CAVIAR "HUITLACOCHE" <p>The “Type of Article” of this paper is “Letter to the Editor”. This paper discuses about: “&nbsp;CULTURAL AND NUTRITIONAL DIMENSIONS OF THE SO-CALLED MEXICAN CAVIAR "HUITLACOCHE" ”. No formal abstract is available. Readers are requested to read the full article.</p> DIANA MATÍAS-PÉREZ, EMILIO HERNÁNDEZ-BAUTISTA, GONZALO SANTOS-LÓPEZ, IVÁN ANTONIO GARCÍA-MONTALVO ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000