Original Research Article

ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL APPELLATIONS IN THE SHIFT OF PERSPECTIVE CORRESPONDING TO “SHI MU” WITH THE PRAGMATIC PRINCIPLES

YUEHONG WEI, XING LIU

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 6-11

With the development of society, the status of women is becoming more and more important. How to call a teacher’s husband is an urgent problem to be solved. Based on previous studies, this paper explores the appellations of “ female teacher’s husband” based on the shifting perspective and the pragmatic principles, and aims to find out the social appellations corresponding to “male teacher’s wife”--“shi mu”. Through the analysis in this paper, the author believes that there is no social appellation to address teacher’s husband which corresponding to “shi mu”, but students can refer to the teacher’s husband from the following three aspects: “title+surname”, “teacher”, and the kinship address “shu shu”, “bo bo”, etc.

Original Research Article

FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMPTION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA

FRANK C. OGBO, REBECCA C. CHUKWUANUKWU, OGECHUKWU B. ARIBODO, CHIFUMNANYA ODIAKA

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 12-23

There is growing interest in increasing mushroom consumption and replacement of the practice of harvesting it from the wild with cultivation in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, there is need to create awareness and remove factors limiting domestic consumption. This study, aims to provide baseline data, which can be exploited in these efforts in Nigeria and in the South-East (SE) Region, in particular.  Data was collected using the survey questionnaire and interview method in the five SE States; Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Results show a widespread awareness that mushrooms are food, ranging from 91 – 98% in the various States. Comparatively fewer respondents, 69 - 84% were aware about mushroom cultivation. Family was the major source from which respondents, 71 – 85% learned about mushrooms. A high proportion of respondents in SE (95%) had eaten mushrooms, but those eating frequently (> 12 times/year), were highest in Imo (28%) and lowest in Anambra (4%) States.  The major reason respondents did not consume mushrooms more frequently was the complaint of its unavailability, which ranged from 75% in Anambra to 57% in Enugu States. This was because majority (68%) of respondents sourced their mushrooms from the wild, which was only available, seasonally and increasingly shorter in supply. It will be possible to increase consumption of mushrooms in Nigeria by increasing cultivation, which should be accompanied with value addition to reduce perishability and improve ease of distribution from the farms.  

Original Research Article

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SAWDUST FROM THREE HARDWOOD SPECIES AS LOW-COST ADSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM CONTAMINATED WATER

T. P. SALIU, F. A. FARUWA, J. M. OWOYEMI, E. A. IYIOLA, V. O. OYERINDE, S. O. AYANLEYE, O. J. OGUNSILE, O. F. GAKENOU, K. J. LAWAL

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 24-32

A lot of wastes are generated in the wood industries which constitute series of negative environmental effects. Nevertheless, sawdust has some organic compounds which can remove heavy metal ions from an aqueous solutions using the adsorption procedure. This investigated the potentials of three hardwood species for the removal of cadmium ion from contaminated water. The wood species utilized in this study include Triplochiton scleroxylon, Brachystegia eurycoma, and Blighia sapida sawdust. The sawdust samples were sieved before the pretreatment to remove both impurities and extractives. The experiments were conducted in batches for adsorption in order to determine the effect of pH solution, contact time, on adsorption of cadmium ions. The experiment was laid out in a 3 × 2 × 4 factorial experimental design. The results revealed that the adsorption capacity for (treated and untreated species, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Brachystegia eurycoma and Blighia sapida (treated and untreated) were 92.40±6.42% and 82.66±13.25%, 85.43±17.21%, and 78.00±24.15%, 78.00±20.08% and 80.75±17.07% respectively at the different pH levels (1-4). The results at the optimum pH (2) also revealed that the adsorption capacity for treated and untreated species of Triplochiton scleroxylon, Brachystegia eurycoma and Blighia sapida were 96.99±1.76% and 96.99±1.68%, 97.94±1.20% and 98.48±0.66%, 97.73±1.59% and 99.10±0.81% respectively at the different contact time (30, 60, 90 and 120). This research revealed that pre-treated sawdust adsorbed metal ions faster even at a low time interval compared to untreated samples. Also, it was observed that the highest adsorption capacity (%) of cadmium took place at pH 2 for all samples of sawdust both (treated and untreated). Hence, the selected wood species were found appropriate for the extraction of cadmium from contaminated water and therefore recommended for use.

Original Research Article

ADSORPTION OF IMPURITIES FROM IRRIGATION WASTEWATER USING ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCED FROM SELECTED BIOMASS

M. A. ADEJUMOBI, M. O. FAJOBI, O. E. ONOFUA, M. S. AFOLABI, O. O. ADEOYE

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 33-43

Pollution from wastewater generated through irrigation has been a major challenge to environmental engineers (especially agricultural engineers) today, as a result of the contaminants and pollutants discharged due to the chemicals from the fertilizers used on crops and the discharge of sediments to surface water or groundwater. An approach to treating this wastewater necessitated the study on the preparation and production of activated carbon to serve as an adsorbent using groundnut shell for the treatment of wastewater from irrigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from groundnut shells for the treatment of irrigation wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from Oke-Oyi irrigation scheme. The samples were analysed for initial physicochemical properties using the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standard. Raw groundnut shells were collected from Ogbomoso. The initial analysis of the drainage water shows the water is highly alkaline and contains sulphate and nitrate above FAO benchmark values. The groundnut shells were grinded and sieved to obtain a 2 mm diameter particle size. The sample was carbonized at 400°C for 30 minutes and activated with 0.3M of phosphoric acid. The effects of temperature (20°C, 30°C and 40°C) and dosage of the activated carbon (1 g, 1.5 g, 2 g and 2.5 g), contact time (30 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, and 2 hours), and granulated activated carbon (GAC) on sulphate and nitrate removal were studied. The effect of the adsorbent on water pH was also studied. The characterization of the prepared AC and the determination of adsorption capacity were carried out. The surface morphological changes of the AC samples were investigated using a scanning electron microscope operated at 25 kV. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to establish the functional groups present. At temperatures of 40°C, 30°C, and 20°C, the pH of the water decreased from 9.94 to 8.22, 8.22, and 8.26, respectively. The optimum dosage with 100% sulphate removal from wastewater (30 – 0.14 mg/l) was 2.5g at 20°C while the optimum dosage for nitrate removal (41.5 – 0.0813 mg/l) ranges between 1–2.5g at 20°C. The SEM analysis produced a well-developed porous surface on the micrograph of AC after chemical activation, which suggests improved removal of impurities when used. Therefore, the use of groundnut shells as feedstock for AC serves the dual purpose of good waste management and pollution treatment antidote.

Mini Review Papers

ON JUDICIAL PRACTICE AND LEGAL PERFECTION WITH SIGNIFICANT INSUFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL

MIAO CHUNGANG

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 1-5

The revision of the Company Law in 2013 changed the capital system of Chinese companies from a paid-in system to a subscription-based system, realizing a major legislative adjustment, which provided a way out for many urban entrepreneurs who lacked funds, and promoted the development of the market economy. However, from a theoretical point of view, the oversimplification of the conditions for the establishment of a company poses a threat to transaction security. When the company's capital is insufficient to repay its debts, it lacks corresponding protection for the interests of creditors. From the aspect of the judicial practice of company law, there is a certain conflict between encouraging entrepreneurship and protecting the interests of company creditors. Aiming at dealing with challenges of theory and practice, this paper uses empirical analysis to discuss how to effectively protect the interests of corporate creditors from the perspective of corporate legal personality protection, especially the application and improvement of "significant insufficient capital". This article is based on the fifty cases, including judgment of the lower courts and high court, and analytical methods of these cases. This article points out that, first of all, the legal meaning of capital should be clarified, and capital should be a corporate asset in a broad sense. Secondly, it is necessary to redistribute the burden of proof and strengthen the legal protection of creditors. Finally, when applying the corporate personality denial system, it is necessary to clarify the bottom line function of the system.