This study focused on effective distribution channel of cassava produce in Umuahia North Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It has objectives of identifying the different forms of distribution channel, revenue generation to farmers and spoilage of cassava produce. The two main sources of data collection were primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected from a sample of 171 respondents’ cassava farmers using questionnaire, which was on a four-point scale. The data collected for the study were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used are percentages, frequency tables, means and standard deviation in answering the research questions while the inferential statistics used was Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) to test the hypotheses. All the hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between the forms of distribution channel and marketing of cassava produce (r =.825, P<.05), that there is a significant relationship between effective distribution of cassava produce and revenue generation to farmers (r =.916, P<.05) and that there is a significant relationship between effective distribution channel and spoilage of cassava produce (r =.813, P<.05). The study therefore, concludes that effective distribution requires a high degree of management skill, as it will be one of the major components in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Finally, it was recommended that government should assist the rural dwellers in providing enough funds to facilitate the distribution of farming and marketing of cassava produce as it helps for community development and alleviation of poverty. Again, that new equipment should be provided for them; especially, the mechanized ones that reduce prolonged labour hours. Farmers should also be encouraged to form associations so as to enable them build social capital, pool resources together and obtain loans and credits easily from financial institutions to enable them distribute their cassava produce effectively regardless of the channel used.
Across the world throughout the age, plants have been an important source of both defensive and curative traditional medicine preparation for human and livestock diseases. However, in the Kore district no ethnobotanical exploration had previously been conducted. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify plant species that are used as traditional medicines for the treatment of human and livestock diseases and to determine and document traditional medicinal plant parts used, their mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration of remedies and associated traditional knowledge in the study area. The result of the survey revealed that a total of 97 medicinal plants belonging to 91 genera and 53 families were identified. From the total plant species (64.9%) were collected from wild vegetation and (15.4%) are from home gardens and the rest of 12.4% are from roadsides, fences, farmlands and villages. In the study area (62.9%) species were recorded for the treatment of human health problems,(20.6%) for livestock and(16.5%) for the treatment of both human and livestock. Leaves were the most frequently used part in preparing herbal remedies. Crushing and oral route of administration were commonly used method of herbal medicine preparation and administration respectively. The most common condition of preparation was fresh form of preparation. Preference ranking analysis showed that Olea europaea ranked first for the most effective medicinal plant to cure wound. Pair wise comparison of medicinal plant shows that Lepidium sativum is the most preferred in treating stomachache. Informant consensus agreement for Febrile illness, Headache, Fever and Dizziness have high Informant consensus factor (0.85). The analysis result of FL shows that Allium sativum scored the highest FL (80%).
Rationale: The importance of energy generation cannot be emphasized enough in every aspect. Even though the traditional electrical generation has been mainly focused on high voltage sources such as hydroelectric and nuclear power, the low-power sources of electrical acquisition are also essential, particularly in the era of digital technology. Batteries have been advanced as an integral component of electric devices for decades. The advent of digital technology leads us to the necessity of low-power energy sources. Electrolyte batteries consist of a pair of metal electrodes in an aqueous solution that facilitates electron transfer through the medium when a circuit is formed. New ideas for these low-power electrical generations have been tried around, even using potatoes, apples, and mud.
Methods: This study investigated yogurt as the electrolyte medium using a metal pair of stainless steel and coiled magnesium electrode. A four-channel data acquisition system recorded the electric generation waveforms from the electrochemical battery cells changing the variables as examined, such as temperature, concentration, pH, stirring power, serial connection, and whole concentration.
Results: The study confirmed that the pair of coiled Mg and stainless-steel electrodes produced the highest electrical potential, 25% higher among the metal pairs tested, while Chobani brand yogurt was the best electrolyte, 10% higher for electricity generation. The variables of temperature, concentration, pH, and stirring power were all highly linearly related to electricity generation. Serial combination with the 4 battery cell study demonstrated the feasibility of high voltage generation up to 7.8V.
Conclusions: The highest electrical potential was acquired when used the whole yogurt of Chobani with stainless steel and coiled-type electrodes. The study demonstrated the superiority of probiotic yogurt electrolytes, which might need to elaborate for further detailed mechanisms.
The objective was to examine the effect of insecurity on food production in Delta State, Nigeria. The studied data were collected using structured questionnaire for 120 respondents. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution and percentage and Chi square was used to decide the statistical relationship between insecurity and food production and distribution. The results for this study showed that the respondents age range of was 41-50 years having secondary school level of education and mostly married female farmers engaging in production of food. Most respondents had no communication with extension agents and have mean farm size of 1.8 hectares implying that bulk of the farmers were smallholder farmer with farming experience above 13 years. The result revealed that planting upland area to avoid flood ranked highest as a remedy to insecurity. The mean (3.03) result show that the level of insecurity was very severe. There were lack of means of transport due to restrictions on movement as a result of insecurity The result of the chi square analysis indicates that there was a significant (p<0.05) relationship between insecurity and food production and distribution which revealed that insecurity have devastating impact on food production and distribution. The study recommends that extension agent administrators and the government should team up to produce and promote a good attitude toward food production and distribution. Future researchers are recommended to delve deeper on the effect of insecurity on food production and distribution.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the economic and environmental factors that have an effect on cassava farming, as well as the numerous products and benefits that come from cassava farming, the challenges that are faced by cassava farming, and the governmental interventions that are geared toward promoting cassava farming in the rural context of Nigeria. In order to gather primary data from cassava farmers in Owanmi, Edo State, as well as in Adani, Enugu State, a study methodology known as descriptive explanatory was used. In order to choose the study sample, the approach of purposeful sampling was used, and the research instruments consisted of a semi-structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide. The qualitative data were studied by looking back over previous journals, and the content analysis method was used to examine the articles and news. The findings of the research revealed that a number of economic and environmental variables had an impact on cassava growing in the site under investigation. In addition, the data demonstrated that cassava production results in a variety of finished goods as well as byproducts that fulfill a variety of economic factors.