Original Research Article

CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MARINE ACTINOMYCETES ANTAGONISTIC TO URINARY TRACT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

P. DEEPA MATHEW, K. SUKESH

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 1-16

The development of multi drug resistant uropathogens is a big threat to human race. Infections with multidrug- resistant bacteria are hard to treat. The present study Characterization of bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes antagonistic to urinary tract bacterial pathogens is aimed to prove that marine actinomycetes have some bioactive compounds which are antagonistic to multi drug resistant uropathogens. In this study there were 14 different urine samples which were collected from urinary tract infection (UTI) suspected patients and from these specimens five uropathogens were isolated. Thirty seven (37) marine actinomycetes were isolated from various marine samples that were collected from different stations of Kovalam coastal region, part of Arabian Sea on the western coast of India. The isolated colonies were studied on their morphological characteristics. These diverse colonies were observed and which indicated the potential diversity of the actinomycetes that had been isolated from various sources. The antagonistic activity studies showed that among the 37 marine actinomycetes isolates 10 isolates showed significant antagonism against all the five test organisms that were cultured including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Proteus sp. in the primary screening. The isolate KVSD9 showed maximum inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (18mm). The result was consistent on both well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. Similarly KVSD4 showed maximum activity against Klebsiella sp. KVSD35 showed maximum activity against Pseudomonas sp. in well diffusion assay. But in disc diffusion method KVSD2 was the most potent strain against Pseudomonas sp. Against Enterococcus sp. KVSD9 showed the highest antagonistic activity in both the secondary assays followed by KVSD2. KVSD4 was the most potent isolate against Proteus sp. in both disc and well diffusion methods.

Original Research Article

CREDIT RISK AND BANK PROFITABILITY NEXUS: EVIDENCE FROM TOO BIG TO FAIL BANKS IN NIGERIA

PAUL NDUBUISI

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 24-34

This research aims to assess the effect of credit risk management measures on the profitability of selected commercial banks in Nigeria through the lens of the Domestic Systemically Important Banks in Nigeria from 2010-2019. The transformed random effects-generalized least squares regression results showed that an increase in the loan loss provisions wields an adverse effect on the profitability of the selected Domestic Systemically Important Banks in Nigeria, evidenced by its significance at 5%. However, the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans and advances was declared insignificant at 1% and 5%, thereby concluding that non-performing loans negate the profitability of Domestic Systemically Important Banks in Nigeria, reaffirming the position established by previous country-based studies. Capital Adequacv Ratio was declared significant at 1% and 5% leading to the conclusion that sufficient bank capital increases the profitability of selected D-SIBs in Nigeria. This study proposes a shift in attention to loan loss provisions and its importance, as displayed in this study. Policy recommendations are proffered herein.

Original Research Article

STUDY ON THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES IN DRINKING WITH OTHERS

MIAO CHUNGANG

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 35-39

Drinking with others belongs to a kind of social relationship among friends, and to a large extent, it also belongs to the scope of moral adjustment, but also often leading to infringement. At present, there are still some problems to be solved about the boundary of moral and legal adjustment of drinking with others. Based on the social aspect, this paper explores the solution of the dispute over drinking with others from the moral and legal aspects, and points out that the necessary restraint should be exercised in judicial settlement, leaving enough space for moral settlement. In the study, historical analysis and empirical analysis are used according to the differences of the problems discussed. In view of the moral settlement of the dispute from drinking with others, the author uses the historical analysis method, and points out that the dispute resolution should consider the moral psychology of the Chinese based on the traditional Chinese legal system. It employs the moral education with the help of guiding cases. In view of the application of the legal rules of drinking with others, the author uses empirical analysis method to find the appropriate restraint rules when judging the duty of attention of the drinkers who drink together, and should carry out case analysis according to the differences in the specific case, and consider the differences between the general obligations and specific obligations, so as to apply the law accurately.

Original Research Article

STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LAW FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE CIVIL CODE

MIAO CHUNGANG

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 40-44

The relationship between civil law and criminal law is the basic proposition in the division of legal systems. With the promulgation of the "Civil Code of the People's Republic of China", the discussion of the relationship between civil law and criminal law has further become a hot spot in Chinese legal studies. From the aspect of uniformity of law, civil law is pre-law, criminal law is the post-law. The confirmation of civil rights is the prerequisite for the protection of criminal law. It is pointed out that the civil code expands the relief of civil rights on environmental infringement and virtual property protection, which requires the criminal law to cooperate with it accordingly. Chinese legal system, in view of the multiple causes of consideration, civil law should moderate expansion, the criminal law should remain modest and restrained. This article firstly used the analytical method of normative jurisprudence to study the impact of changes in the civil code on the criminal law system in many aspects. Secondly, it used the method of empirical analysis, through the discussion of typical cases, to analyze the practical significance of the restraint of criminal law in judicial practice. In the case study, we focused on the interpretation of the elements of a crime one by one, and explored the difference and connection between civil disputes and criminal cases. Finally, the full text shows that the criminal law should be restricted in specific areas, paying attention to the development and modest and being restrained of criminal law.

Short Research Articles

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTES AND ANIMAL DUNGS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION

V. N. ANAKWENZE, C. C. EKWEALOR, I. A. EKWEALOR

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 17-23

Biogas generated from renewable organic biomass is seen as a means to decrease dependency on fossil resources, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as provide an alternative source of energy. The aim of the study was to produce biogas from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food wastes and animal dung. The food wastes collected from restaurants around the temporary site, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, and pig manure, cow manure, and chicken droppings collected from different farms in Awka metropolis served as substrates. The physiochemical properties of the substrates, which included pH, carbon and nitrogen content, volatile solid and volatile fatty acid (acetic acid), were analyzed. A simple shake flask digester was fabricated and used for the digestion of the substrates. Individual digestion of the substrates was investigated. Biogas produced was measured by the water displacement method. Results showed that biogas produced followed this order: chicken dropping˃ pig dung˃ cow dung˃ food wastes. Chicken dropping produced the highest biogas yield of 961ml/g VS while food wastes produced the least biogas yield of 115ml/g VS.