Original Research Article

NEW REMARK ON THE PROPERTIES OF STABLE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF A CERTAIN ORDER OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EBIENDELE EBOSELE PETER, AGWELI ALIU MOMOH

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 1-7

The objective of this paper is to investigate and give sufficient and necessary conditions that guarantee the properties of stability of internal control systems for a certain order of Linear Differential Equations. This corresponds to globally exponentially stable equilibrium (point or position) of a system with input and output properties. We state and prove the classical Liapunov Theorem which allows us to reduce the stability analysis to an algebraic problem (computation of the eigenvalues of the matrix). We also introduce the quadratic Lyapunov functions and Lyapunov matrix equations that enhances the results of the defined objective. The Routh – Hurwitz criterion was given without proof. Since the results obtained in this study is different from the results and approach’s obtained in the literature, which implies that the results of this study are essentially new.

Original Research Article

RULES EXTRACTION OF FORMAL DECISION CONTEXTS BASED ON FOUR-WAY CONCEPT LATTICES

SHUJING LI, LI FU

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 8-16

This paper mainly discusses the rule extraction of formal decision contexts based on four-way concept lattice. Firstly, we dene the four-way concept lattice over the formal decision context, and illustrate it using the example. Secondly, we discuss the rules extraction under the given formal decision context, and give out decision rules and denition of redundant rule. Lastly, we study the relationship between classical concept lattice, three-way concept lattice and four-way concept
lattice.

Original Research Article

STUDY ON PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS UNDER CIVIL CODE

MIAO CHUNGANG

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 17-20

The promulgation of civil code in 2020 is a milestone of civil legislation, marking the protection of civil rights into the age of codification. The regulation of civil rights systematization in civil code brings challenges and opportunities to the application of consumer rights protection law. As a newly formulated code, the civil code strengthens the provisions of natural people's rights in the provisions of general, contract, personality and tort, thus helping to protect the rights of consumers who are natural persons in essence. This paper discusses the breakthrough of civil rights connotation of civil code from the perspective of empirical law, demonstrates the gain and loss of breakthrough provisions of civil code in civil rights type, format contract, contract defect guarantee, tort relief and so on. Based on the analysis of comparative law, the purpose of this paper is to find out the shortcomings of the existing legislative provisions of the Civil Code and to provide relevant reference for the introduction of judicial interpretation in the future.

Original Research Article

THE COMPARISON OF TRANSLATION MEMORY OF THREE MAJOR COMPUTER-AIDED TRANSLATION SOFTWARE

YUEHONG WEI, QI SHEN

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 21-25

Under the new era background, translators are facing unprecedented challenges, while traditional translation is facing great changes. And the continuous development of computer technology brings computer technology into translation, which makes it possible for computer-aided translation tools to be more effective. In order to help the translators select translation tools in accordance with varieties of translation projects and personalized service, this paper compares advantages and disadvantages of the functional modules of translation memory of three major computer-aided translation software, SDL Trados, Déjà Vu and Yaxin CAT.

Original Research Article

NIGER DELTA ECOLOGICAL QUESTION: AN ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN TIDES BY ISIDORE OKPEWHO, YELLOW-YELLOW BY KAINE AGARY AND THE CHILDREN OF OLOIBIRI BY NDUBUISI ANTHONY ABAGHA

EJIH, SUNDAY

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 26-37

The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is known to be rich in crude oil and other natural resources. The discovery of crude oil at Oloibiri in 1958 and its subsequent extraction thereafter, marks the genesis of ecological degradation in the region. Using Ecocritical approach, the paper analyses the varying levels of ecological challenges faced by the area as represented in the selected novels. As parts of its findings, ecological degradation in the Niger Delta region is a reality. It is discovered, too, that ecological damage in the region is the resultant effect of human willful natural tendencies to destroy in order to establish conquest of the environment. It is too found that none of the authors proffers any pragmatic solutions as a way out of these ecological woes. The paper concludes by calling on actors in the degrading of the Niger Delta physical environment to adhere strictly to ecological principles to make the area a safe haven that it should be.

Original Research Article

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF GREEN POVERTY REDUCTION IN HUNAN PROVINCE

XIAO PING, DAI YUEYUAN

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 38-45

In order to investigate the relationship between the poverty reduction effect and green development in Hunan Province, this paper constructed the Green poverty reduction effect Index of Hunan Province, which was used to measure the size of the green poverty reduction effect in the poverty reduction of Hunan Province. In this paper, the relevant data of 48 poverty-stricken counties in Hunan province were collected by the Bureau of Statistics, and the poverty reduction effect index, green development index and green poverty reduction effect index were calculated. Cluster analysis was conducted based on the estimated results of the green poverty reduction evaluation index of 48 poverty-stricken counties (county-level cities) in Hunan Province.

The study shows that the green poverty reduction effect of 48 poverty-stricken counties (county-level cities) in Hunan province can be divided into three distinct echelon from east to west: the first distinct echelon is the eastern region which achieving good results, the second is central region , and the western region lagging behind.

Original Research Article

RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTIONS, KNOWLEDGE AND MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) IN SIERRA LEONE

JOHNNY ERNEST NORMAN, DAN DAVID QUEE, JULIET SALOME NORMAN, SAHR N. FOMBA

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 46-56

A survey was conducted in seven districts of Sierra Leone, to evaluate farmer’s perceptions, knowledge and management practices of okra insect pests using individual interviews with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed higher population of females with over 17 years of experience in okra production, and their active productive age groups ranged from 30-51 years. Across districts, 51.4% of the okra farmers are unschooled and most cultivate okra during the dries in swampy ecologies with a farm size of 0.05 hectares. Most farmers reported ants and hoppers as the major insect pests and the most prevalent cultural method of insect control was wood ash and used of chemicals. Hence, the need to initiate group learning and exchange of experiences in pest management within and between farmer groups. Farmer’s indigenous management practices of okra insect pests should be given due attention in research and development of okra insect pest management strategies.

Original Research Article

COMPLIANCE WITH EQUITABLE TREATMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS AND THE PROFITABILITY OF MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN GHANA

SIMON PETER TSEKPO

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 57-69

This research investigates the impact of compliance with equitable treatment of stakeholders on the profitability of medium scale enterprises in a Ghana using descriptive research design approach. The study has three specific objectives: to construct Ghanaian medium scale enterprises’ equitable treatment of stakeholders’ compliance index; to establish the correlation between Ghanaian medium scale enterprises’ equitable treatment of stakeholders and their profitability; and the measure the impact of compliance with equitable treatment of stakeholders on the profitability of Ghanaian MSEs. The work anchored on stakeholder theory, and sampled 1010 respondents across medium scale enterprises in Ghana. Parametric tests and inferential statistics (correlation and regression) were carried out. The study empirically proved that:  Ghanaian medium scale enterprises’ aggregate compliance to equitable treatment of stakeholders is 45%; and that compliance to equitable treatment of stakeholders has statistical significant positive effect on the profitability of Ghanaian Medium Scale Enterprises. This study reveals that medium scale enterprises in Ghana should place more emphasis in compliance with equitable treatment of stakeholders since it significantly increases their profitability. Finally, the need to replicate this study in other emerging and developed economies is called for since there is serious dearth in literature on this topic currently.

Original Research Article

DEVELOPING AN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM USING ARDUINO

CHELSEA LIM, HYUN WOO RO, RYAN PARK, JONGBIN LEE

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 70-82

Lakes constitute essential habitats and food resources for diverse fish, aquatic life, and wildlife. But lake ecosystems are dynamic and should endure rapid environmental changes, often leading to a dramatic deterioration in their aesthetic, recreational, and aquatic ecosystem functions. A lake is an interwoven water environment where the chemical, physical, and biological properties all interact and influence one another. The health of the life in a lake is a product of the lake's physical and chemical nature. The importance of monitoring lake conditions has been overlooked. Among many parameters for monitoring water quality, pH, dissolved oxygen level, turbidity and temperatures have been recognized as the most significant. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in water plays a vital role in determining the type and number of organisms that live in a lake and is a good indicator of the lake’s overall health. These parameters undoubtedly play a significant role in creating the aquatic organism to either thrive or decimate accordingly.

In this study, an Arduino system was created to continuously monitor the essential ecological parameters such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen level with an early warning system using RGB LED light codes and a Thingspeak IoT communication. The Arduino system was housed in a floatable plastic container stably positioned with a buoyance and a weight. The system's effectiveness was evaluated using a blind test, which demonstrated that our system could correctly measure water quality.

Original Research Article

EVALUATING THE BANANA PEEL PLASTICS FOR NEW PACKING MATERIALS

JONGBIN LEE, BRYAN BIN, TIMOTHY KIM, JOSHUA J. YOON, ABRAHAM K. WOO

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 83-96

Plastics are essential components for countless products utilized in our daily life. However, the non-biodegradable durability of traditional petroleum-based plastics has resulted in catastrophic scars on the Earth’s ecosystems. Animals such as terrestrial or marine, mammal, amphibian, and even plants are poisoned by ingestion of petroleum-based plastics on a day to day basis. Thus, biodegradable plastics started being developed, supported by their potential advantage to minimize global plastic pollution.

This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of banana peel plastic to identify the optimal application for packaging materials. Two types of banana plastic were created. Banana plastic with low biodegradability was made with 0.5% sodium metabisulfite (SMBS), while the plastic with high biodegradability had no treatment in the SMBS solution. The effects of the compound were compared throughout the manufacturing processes. To create the banana plastic, fresh bananas were peeled, cut into pieces, boiled for 30 minutes in distilled water, and blended into a liquified paste. The serial addition and thorough blending of HCl, glycerol, and NaOH were performed. Then, the resulting dough-type pastes were formed to be ring-shaped packing materials.  And subsequently, the products were baked into the form of banana plastic in an electric oven.

The study revealed that banana plastic was better suited as a packing material than Styrofoam based on the results from moving gap tests, pressing force endurances, and fire-catching time for both types of banana plastics. Comparing the parameters between biodegradable plastics (BDP) and styrofoam packing materials, it took 89% longer for BDP to catch on fire than Styrofoam, the pressure force endurance was 78% greater in BDP, and the moving gap was 150% less in BDP than Styrofoam. Our packing materials demonstrated the feasibility of the sample product better secured with high protection.

Original Research Article

INSIGHT INTO THE EFFECT OF FISH OIL AND EXTRACTS OF LEMON GRASS AND TURMERIC ON PRODUCTIVITY OF NAVEL ORANGES

RANDA E. Y. HABASY, HUDA M. H. ESMAIL, HAMDY H. M. SAIED

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 104-110

Throughout 2017 and 2018 seasons Navel oranges received there sprays of fish oil and extracts of lemon grass and turmeric each at 0.5 to 2.0%. The effect of these natural materials on the leaf area, total chlorophylls, the percentages of N, P and K fruit retention, the yield per tree and per feddan (1.038 acres), and the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits have been investigated for merit.

Exposing Navel orange tree three times with fish oil and extracts of lemon grass and turmeric at 0.5 to 2.0% had synergistic effects on Leaf region, complete chlorophyll N, P, K, retention of fruit, yield and fruit characteristics over the control. The occurred promotion was considerably associated with using fish oil and extracts of lemon grass and turmeric in ascending order. Increasing concentrations was followed by a gradual stimulation on all the investigated parameter.

Treating Navel orange trees three times with turmeric extract at 1% resulted in maximizing the yield and producing better fruit characteristics.

Original Research Article

EFFECTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON PARENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING VACCINATION AT MOUANKO, EDEA HEALTH DISTRICT, CAMEROON

ERIC NGALA, ENOW VIVIAN AYAMBA ETA, GREGORY EDIE HALLE EKANE, THOMAS ETAMBA ETA

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 111-121

Background: Vaccination is known to prevent 2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. However,                 vaccination coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon is still low due to poor knowledge on vaccination.

Objective: This study aimed at investigating the effects of health education on parents’ knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccination.

Methods: This was a cross sectional interventional study which investigated the effects of health education on parents’ knowledge and attitudes regarding vaccination in the Mouanko Health Area. Participants were selected using the cluster sampling technique and were randomly assigned either to an intervention or a control group. The intervention was health education on vaccination that was administered only to the intervention group after conducting a pretest. Data on knowledge and attitudes was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Each correct response based on questions asked on the questionnaire was given a point. The knowledge section was scored on 13and parents who scored seven points and above were termed knowledgeable while those who scored below seven were termed not-knowledgeable. Similarly, a point was given to each correct response under attitudes; parents who scored four points and above on seven were said to have positive attitudes, while those who scored below four had negative attitudes on vaccination. Data was collected from May 13 to June 15, 2019 and analysed using SPSS version 25.0.  

Results: After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the proportion of participants who had knowledge on vaccination from 35.0% to 57.6% and from 31.0% to 41.9% for positive attitudes. The p-values were at 0.001 and 0.012 for knowledge and attitudes respectively (CI = 95%).

Conclusion: The positive change in the intervention group after the intervention indicated the cost-effectiveness of the health education. 

 

Original Research Article

KH2PO4 AND SUCROSE AFFECTED in vitro AND ex vitro DATE PALM PLANTLETS CV SAKOTY

R. S. S. DARWESH, M. MONA HASAN, AMAL F. M. ZEIN EL- DIN, FADIA A. HUSSEIN

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 122-132

The acclimatization stage of date palm plantlets is crucial for increasing numbers of plants to culture in the open field so to increasing the survival percentage of this stage in the greenhouse this study was done to improving plantlets in the rooting stage in vitro by using different concentrations of KH2PO4 as full (170 mg L-1), full (170 mg L-1) + ¼ and full (170 mg L-1) + ½ and sucrose 30 as control treatment, 45 and 60 g L-1. The found results exhibited the treatment KH2POat full  with 45 g L-1 sucrose  proved to be the great treatment for  increasing in vitro height plants, while the root length and numbers and stem thickness were highly increasing under KH2PO4 full + ½ with 60 g L-1 sucrose, maximum hairy roots produced by full KH2PO4 +30 g L-1 sucrose, highest numbers of leaves obtained on the medium supplemented by full KH2PO4 + ¼  with 45 g L-1 sucrose, the greatest percentage of plantlets acclimatization under full + ¼ KH2PO4 with 30 and 45 g L-1 sucrose. More contents of total indoles, chlorophyll a and b were present under full +1/4 and full + ½ KH2PO4 with 45 g L-1 sucrose. Up on the previous results the treatment of full + ¼ or full + ½ KH2PO4 with 45 g L-1 sucrose is the preferable for successful in vitro and ex vitro stages.

Short Research Articles

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS OBTAINED FROM PALP (AKAMU) OF DIFFERENT MARKET SOURCES IN BENIN CITY

H. E. IYARE, O. J. OGUNBIYI, O. V. ARIREDIEGHA

Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, Page 97-103

Microorganism play important role in the fermentation of foods. Nigeria has several fermentable foods produced from several feed stocks including cereals, legumes, palm tree, tuber (plants) and proteineceous‟ animal foods. The present study was conducted to determine the microbial activities of locally fermented maize (ogi or akamu). The “akamu” samples were collected aseptically from three different markets in Ogiso and its environs. These samples were taken to the laboratory immediately and were analyzed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Escherichia species, Staphylococcus species, Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species were the bacteria isolated. The total bacteria count ranged from 2.5 x 108 to 4.0 x 108cfu/g. The observed high microbial count in the akamu may likely be attributable to poor hygienic practices during the processing and post processing handling.