Main Article Content



Propolis is well-known for its favourable biological properties, which are widely employed in the treatment of a variety of disorders. It is high in chemical components that are dependent on the sort of plant that bees may access. The chemical makeup of an Indian Propolis sample was investigated using GCMS, and 22 chemicals were discovered. The MTT assay was used to test the ethanol extract of Propolis against leukaemia and lung cancer cell lines in vitro. The propolis extract was incubated with cancer cell lines for 24 hours, cytotoxicity was assessed using a colorimetric method, and the IC50 value was obtained. The findings showed that the propolis extract tested had substantial cytotoxic action. The conclusion is that Indian Propolis has potential. The Indian Propolis was shown to be a possible natural source of chemopreventive agent. The chemical makeup of Indian Propolis suggests that it could be a viable source of novel bioactive chemicals, but the molecules responsible for biological activity must be identified.

Propolis, Bee, leukemia, lung cancer, GC-MS

Article Details

How to Cite
SAHOO, R., SIVARAM, V., & ANUSHA, M. (2022). EFFECT OF SOLVENTS ON PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING BY GC-Ms ANALYSIS AND In vitro CYTOTOXICITY OF BEE PROPOLIS AGAINST LEUKEMIA AND LUNG CANCER CELL LINES. Journal of Biology and Nature, 14(1), 16-26. Retrieved from https://ikpresse.com/index.php/JOBAN/article/view/7686
Original Research Article


Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Natural products:a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects. 2013;1830(6):3670-3695.

Kuropatnicki AK, Szliszka E, Krol W. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2013.

Chen C, Fang Y, Fontana P, Lloyd DJ, Martinez L, Mukomana D, Roberts JMK, Schouten CN. Beekeeping models. FAO, IZSLT, Apimondia and CAAS; 2021.

Manzoor U. Chapter-3 beekeeping and lac culture in India. Entomology. 2021;41.

Abrol DP. Beekeeping: A compressive guide to bees and beekeeping. Scientific Publishers; 2013.

Bankova V, Trusheva B, Popova M. Propolis extraction methods:A review. Journal of Apicultural Research. 2021;60(5): 734-743.

Forma E, Bryś M. Anticancer activity of propolis and its compounds. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2594.

Kowacz M, Pollack GH. Propolis-induced exclusion of colloids: Possible new mechanism of biological action. Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2020;38:100307.

Ramnath S, Venkataramegowda S. Antioxidant activity of Indian propolis—An in vitro evaluation. International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine. 2016;5:79-85.

Kasote DM, Pawar MV, Gundu SS, Bhatia R, Nandre VS, Jagtap SD, Mahajan SG, Kulkarni MV. Chemical profiling, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Indian stingless bees propolis samples. Journal of Apicultural Research. 2019;58(4):617-625.

Turnia I, Prasad R, Prasad SB. GC-MS analysis of main chemical constituents and antioxidative potential of propolis from Meghalaya, India. J Global Pharma Technol. 2020;12(3):1-11.

Ahangari Z, Naseri M, Vatandoost F. Propolis:chemical composition and its applications in endodontics. Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2018;13(3):285.

Sangboonruang S, Semakul N, Sookkree S, Kantapan J, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Khamduang W, Kongyai N, Tragoolpua K. Activity of propolis nanoparticles against HSV-2: Promising approach to inhibiting infection and replication. Molecules. 2022;27(8):2560.

Guimarães AG, Xavier MA, de Santana MT, Camargo EA, Santos CA, Brito FA, Barreto EO, Cavalcanti SC, Antoniolli AR, Oliveira RC, Quintans-Júnior LJ. Carvacrol attenuates mechanical hypernociception and inflammatory response. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 2012;385(3):253-263.

Perri F, Coricello A, Adams JD. Monoterpenoids: The next frontier in the treatment of chronic pain? J, 2020;3(2):195-214.

Asgharpour F, Moghadamnia AA, Kazemi S, Nouri HR, Motallebnejad M. Applying GC-MS analysis to identify chemical composition of Iranian propolis prepared with different solvent and evaluation of its biological activity. Caspian Journal of Internal Cragg Medicine. 2020;11(2):191.

Botteon CEA, Silva LB, Ccana-Ccapatinta GV, Silva TS, Ambrosio SR, Veneziani RCS, Bastos JK, Marcato PD. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using Brazilian red propolis and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):1-16.

Mohan CD, Rangappa S, Preetham HD, Nayaka SC, Gupta VK, Basappa S, Sethi G, Rangappa KS. April. Targeting STAT3 signaling pathway in cancer by agents derived from Mother Nature. In Seminars in cancer biology. Academic Press; 2020.

Shubharani R, Sivaram V, Kishore BR. In-vitro cytotoxicity of Indian bee propolis on cancer cell lines. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2014;5(4):698-706.

Mokaya HO, Bargul JL, Irungu JW, Lattorff HMG. Bioactive constituents, in vitro radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of selected Apis mellifera honey from Kenya. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2020;55(3):1246-1254.

Šuran J, Cepanec I, Mašek T, Radić B, Radić S, Tlak Gajger I, Vlainić J. Propolis extract and its bioactive compounds—From traditional to modern extraction technologies. Molecules. 2021;26(10): 2930.

Cunha I, Sawaya AC, Caetano FM, Shimizu MT, Marcucci MC, Drezza FT, Povia GS, Carvalho PDO. Factors that influence the yield and composition of Brazilian propolis extracts. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2004;15:964-970.

Singh DK, Srivastava B, Sahu A. Spectrophotometric determination of Rauwolfia alkaloids:estimation of reserpine in pharmaceuticals. Analytical Sciences. 2004;20(3):571-573.

Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2002;10(3).

Yubin JI, Miao Y, Bing W, Yao Z. The extraction, separation and purification of alkaloids in the natural medicine. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;6(1):338-345.

Moronkola DO, Ogunwande IA, Walker TM, Setzer WN, Oyewole IO. Identification of the main volatile compounds in the leaf and flower of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) Gray. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2007;61(1):63-66.

Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival:application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1983;65(1-2):55-63.

Alley PG, McNee RK. Age and sex differences in right colon cancer. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 1986;29(4):227-229.

Umthong S, Phuwapraisirisan P, Puthong S, Chanchao C. In vitro antiproliferative activity of partially purified Trigona laeviceps propolis from Thailand on human cancer cell lines. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;11(1):1-8.

Kapare HS, Sathiyanarayanan L. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of propolis: A review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020;13(7):3545-3549.

Cauich-Kumul R, Campos MRS. Bee propolis: Properties, chemical composition, applications, and potential health effects. In Bioactive Compounds. Woodhead Publishing. 2019;227-243.

Kapare HS, Lohidasan S, Arulmozhi S, Mahadik KR. Standardization, chemical profiling, in vitro cytotoxic effects, in vivo anti-carcinogenic potential and biosafety profile of Indian propolis. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2019;10(2):81-87.

Bharti U, Kumar NR, Chaudhary D. Modulatory prospective of bee pollen against oxidative stress induced by drugs: A review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018;11(12): 5648-5652.

Kapare HS, Lohidasan S, Arulmozhi S, Mahadik KR. Design and development of indian propolis loaded poly (ε -Caprolactone) nanoparticles for improved anticancer efficacy. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;9 (3):73-80.

Lee HY, Jeong YI, Kim EJ, Lee KD, Choi SH, Kim YJ, Kim DH, Choi KC. Preparation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester-incorporated nanoparticles and their biological activity. J Pharm Sci. 2015;104(1):144–154.

Kartal M, Yıldız S, Kaya S, Kurucu S, Topçu G. Antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from two different regions of Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;86(1):69-73.

Kasiotis KM, Anastasiadou P, Papadopoulos A, Machera K. Revisiting Greek propolis: chromatographic analysis and antioxidant activity study. PloS One. 2017;12(1): e0170077.

Petrova A, Popova M, Kuzmanova C, Tsvetkova I, Naydenski H, Muli E, Bankova V. New biologically active compounds from Kenyan propolis. Fitoterapia. 2010;81(6):509-514.

da Silveira Regueira-Neto M, Tintino SR, Rolón M, Coronal C, Vega MC, de Queiroz Balbino V, de Melo Coutinho HD. Antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of Brazilian red propolis and plant resin of Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L) Taub. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2018; 119:215-221.

Patel S. Emerging adjuvant therapy for cancer:propolis and its constituents. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2016;13(3):245-268.

Langstroth LL. A practical treatise on the hive and honey-bee. CM Saxton & Company; 1857.