COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF Bryophyllum pinnatum AND Newbouldia laevis ON CLINICAL ISOLATES FROM WOUND INFECTION

Main Article Content

EMMANUEL TOBECHUKWU UGWUOJI
EBELE LINDA OKOYE
CHUKWUEBUKA MARYVIN EZEOKOLI
PRISCA AMALA OKOYE

Abstract

Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum and Newbouldia laevis are plant species that have been used in traditional herbal medicine for internal and external treatments in Nigeria. While Bryophyllum pinnatum has been applied in the treatments of burns and scalds, boils, abscesses, gastric ulcers, wound, insect bites, lithiasis, edema of leg and other diseases, Newbouldia laevis  has medicinal value ranging from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungi, analgesic and wound healing properties.

Aim of the Study: To isolate bacterial organisms from wounds, and to comparatively screen the in vitro antibacterial activities of the extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Newbouldia laevis on the clinical isolates from wound infection.

Materials and Methods: Solvents used in leave extraction include ethanol, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested against five organisms; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus species, and Corynebacterium species isolated from wounds. Phytochemical analyses of the plant extracts were also carried out using standard methods. Disc diffusion was used to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to the extracts while broth dilution methods were used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC).

Results: Results showed that the five test organisms had varied degree of susceptibility to the extracts. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella species were the most susceptible to the extracts with zones of inhibition ranging between 6.0 to 10.0mm and 6.5 to 9.0mm respectively at concentration of 100mg/ml while Bacillus species was the least susceptible with inhibition zone diameter of 6.0 to 7.0mm at the same concentration. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ranged between 6.25 to 50mg/ml of the concentrations while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration occurred at 50mg/ml for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. The extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum had higher activity than extracts of Newbouldia laevis prepared in the same way.

Conclusions: The results suggest that extracts of both plants were broad spectrum in activity and has great potential in effective treatment of wound infections.

Keywords:
Antibacterial, wound infections, bacteria, leaf extracts, traditional herbal medicines

Article Details

How to Cite
UGWUOJI, E. T., OKOYE, E. L., EZEOKOLI, C. M., & OKOYE, P. A. (2022). COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF Bryophyllum pinnatum AND Newbouldia laevis ON CLINICAL ISOLATES FROM WOUND INFECTION. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, 7(1), 23-32. Retrieved from https://ikpresse.com/index.php/AJOPSS/article/view/7312
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ogbe FM, Dania OLE, Marilyn U. Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay. 2009;4(3):120-130.

Tilburt JC, Kaptchuk TJ. Herbal medicine research and global health: An ethical Analysis. Bull. World Health Organization. 2008;86:594- 599.

Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:357- 361.

Vasudeva N, Sharma SK. Post-coital antifertility activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. Roots. Oxford Journals. 2007;5(1):91–94.

Singh A, Singh SK. Evaluation of antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mouse. Contraception. 2009;1:71–79.

Craigg GM, David JN. Natural product drug discovery in the next millennium. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology. 2001;39:8-17.

Yadav RNS, Munin Agarwala. Phytochemical Analysis of some medicinal plants. Journal of Phytology. 2011;3(12):10-14.

Nwabuise C. Prophylactic effect of multi-herbal induced in mice. Medical journal of East Africa. 2002;79:343-346.

World Health Organization. WHO guideline for the assessment of herbal medicines.WHO Expert Committee on Specification of Pharmaceutical preparations. Technical Report Series Number 86. Geneva; 1996.

World Health Organization (WHO). Author Traditional medicine. Fact sheet number 134; 2001.

Available:http/ www.who.int/mediacentrefactsheet/fs/134

Albinu IE, Ohaegbulam VC, Adenipekun EA, Odugbemi TO. Emergence of Quinolone Resistance amongst Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical infections in some Lagos state Hospitals in Nigeria. Nigerian journal of Health and Biomedical Science. 2004;3(2):73-78.

Williams R. Antimicrobial resistance a global threat. Essential Drug Monitor. 2000;1:28-29.

Pretorious JC, Magama S, Zietsman PC. Growth inhibition of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi by extracts from selected South African plant species. South African Journal of Botany. 2003;20:188-192.

Moreillion P, Que YA, Glausser MP. Staphylococcus aureus (including staphylococcal toxic shock) in: Mandell GL, Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R., editors. ‘Principles and practice of infectious diseases’. 6th ed. Vol. 2. Pennyslyvania: published by Churcill Living Stone. 2005;2333-2339.

Mamah Mohammedaman, Alemseged Abdissa, Tsegaye Sewunet. Antimicrobial Susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to Z alternative topical agents at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South-West Ethiopia. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2014;13(14):1-10.

Khan Imran, Surya Rao Srikakolupu, Surekha Darsipudi, Srujana Divya Gotteti, Hemasundara Amaranadh. Phytochemical studies and screening of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica for its anti-microbial activity against dental pathogens. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2010;2(2):246- 250.

Ufelle SA, Ukaejiofo EO, Neboh EE, Achukwu PU, Ghasi S, Ikekpeazu EJ, Maduka IC. The effect of crude methanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014;3(3): 121-124.

Chima UD, Ofodile EAU, Okorie MCF. A survey of plant used in the Treatment of Ante-natal and post-natal disorders in Nneochi local Government Area of abia state, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;3(6):229-237.

Hutchison J, Daziel JM. Flora of west tropical African crown agents for oversea government and administration 4, Milbank, London, S.W. 1963;435-436.

Tanko Y, Okasha MA, Saleh MA, Mohammed A, Yerima M, Yaro AH, Isa AI. Antidiabetic Effect of Ethanolic flower Extracts of Newbouldia leavis (Bignoniaceae) on blood glucose levels of Streptozocin- induced diabetic Wistar Rats. Journal of Medicinal Sciences. 2008;2(2):62-65.

Idu M, Akinnibosun AA, Omonhimin CA, Ejale A. Ethnomedicinal field study in the wetlands of udu and Ughieevwan clans of Delta State, Nigeria. Proceeding of Global Summit on Medicinal Plants. 2003;1:98-106.

Aladesanmi AJ, Nla R, Nahrstedt A. A new pyrazole alkaloids from the root bark of Newbouldia laevis. Planta Medicina. 1998;64:90-91.

Chukwujekwu JC, Staden JV, Smith P. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2005;71(3and4):316-325.

Kuete VE, Eyomg KO, Beng VP, Folefoc GN, Hussin H, Krohn K, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract and compounds isolated from the stem bark of Newbouldia laevis. Seem. Pharmazie. 2007;62:552-556.

Usman H, Osuji J.C. Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial assay of the leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2007;4(4):476-480.

Akerele JO, Ayinde BA, Ngiagah J. Phytochemical and antibacterial and eyes. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011;10(2):211-218.

Omokpo KI, Oriaghan EA, Esekie OT, Isalar EL. Comparative study on the Effects of Methanolic Extract of Newboudia laevis Stem Bark and Honey on ulcerated soft tissue injury of wistar Rat. International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research. 2012;1(4):145-150.

Arbonnier M. Trees, Shrubs and Lianas of West Africa dry zones. CIRAD Mar grai publishers GMBH, MNHN, Cote d’ Ivorie. 2004;194.

Egba S, Sunday GI, Anaduaka EG. The effect of Oral administration of aqueous extract of Newbouldia laevis leaves on fertility hormones of male albino rats; 2014.

Akinpelu DA. Anti-microbial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves. Fitoterapia. 2000;71(2):193-194.

Mehta Bhat JU. Studies on Indian medicinal plant II, Bryophyllum Calycium salsib. Journal University Bombay. 1952;21:21-25.

Misra S, Dixit SN. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of some higher plants. Acta Botanica indica. 1974;7:147-150.

Pal S, Nag Chaudhuri Ak. Preliminary dtudies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam). Medical Science Resource. 1989;17:561-562.

Pal S, Nag Chaudhuri Ak. Studies on the anti-inflammatory profile of the methanolic fraction of the extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Fitoterapia. 1991;63:451-459.

Sindhu S, Manorama S. Exploration of Antioxidant properties in various Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2013;1(5):618-623.

Okwu DE. Nigeria medicinal plant II. Medicinal and Aromatic plant Science and Biotechnology. 2007;1(1):97-102.

Muhammad A, Imran K, Khan R, Singh R, Chauhau M, Bisht T. Bryophyllum pinnatum: A review. International Journal of Research in Biological Sciences. 2012;2(4):143-149.

Oforkansi KC, Esimone CO, Anele CK. Evaluation of the in vitro combined antibacterial effect of the leaf extracts of bryophyllum pinnatum (fam: Crassulaceae) and ocimum gratissimum (fam; Labiatae). Plant Product research Journal. 2005;9:23-27.

Shahidi Bongar GH. Evaluation of the antibacterial properties of Iranian Medicinal plants against Micrococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Bordetella bronchoseptica. Asian Journal of Sciences. 2004;3(1):82-86

Atata R, Sani A, Ajewole SM. Effect of stem back extracts of Enantia chloranta on some clinical isolates. Biokemistri. 2003 ;15(2):84-92.

Edeoga HO, Okwu PE, Mbaele BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(7):685-688.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory standards (NCCLS). Author. Methods for dilution, antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. 5th ed. 2000;30.

Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Bryophyllum Pinnatum. Journal of Science. 2006;6:30-37.