Main Article Content
Chickpea is one of the pivotal legume due to its nutritious value and used all over the world as food for human and feed for animals. Drought is effecting grain yield up to 30-40% in chickpea. The initial move towards improvement of drought tolerance in chickpea is to screen existing germplasm. The experiment conducted in Pulses Research Institute Faisalabad in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. Ten Desi chickpea and 10 Kabuli chickpea genotypes assessed at seedling stage on physio-morphic traits. Desi chickpea genotypes D-14005, D-13011 and Kabuli chickpea K-01216, K-14004 lines had maintained root/shoot ratio, relative water contents and excised leaf water loss under 50% FC and 100% FC. Five best performing Kabuli chickpea genotypes and five Desi chickpea genotypes further evaluated for drought tolerance and grain yield in field with regular irrigation and drought. The physiological traits included excised leaf water loss, cell membrane thermostability, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents recorded at anthesis and yield related traits days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight and grain yield per plant recorded at maturity indicated Desi Line D-14005and Kabuli line K-14004 are drought tolerant. The selection criteria developed for identifying drought tolerant chickpea genotypes is very efficient.
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS); 2020.
Available at: http://www.pbs.gov.pk/agri-stat-tables
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAOSTAT; 2020.
Yongle Li R, Pradeep B, Jacqueline E. David K. Tanveer C. Timothy P. Jiayin KHM, Siddique, Tim S. Investigating drought tolerance in chickpea using genome-wide association mapping and genomic selection based on whole-genome resequencing data. Front. Plant Sci. 2018;9:1-190.
Rani AP, Devi UC, Jha KD, Sharma HMK, Siddique H. Nayyar. Developing climate-resilient chickpea involving physiological and molecular approaches with a focus on temperature and drought stresses. Front. Plant Sci. 2020;10:1-29.
Gugino BK, Abawi GS, Idowu OJ, Schindelbeck RR, Smith LL, Thies JE, Wolfe DW, Van Es HM. Cornell soil health assessment training manual. Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, USA; 2009.
Barrs HD, Weatherley PE. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Aus. J. Biol. Sci. 1962;15:413- 428.
Clarke JM, McCaig TN. Evaluation of techniques for screening for drought resistance in wheat. Crop Sci. 1982;22:503-506.
Saadalla MM, Shanahan JF, Quick JS. Heat tolerance in winter wheat: I. Hardening and genetic effects on membrane thermostability. Crop Sci. 1990;30:1243-1247.
Petcu E, Ciuca M. SSR markers associated with membrane stability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Rom. Agric. Res. 2009;26:21-24.
Rashid K, Sadaqat HA, Khan AS, Ahmed N. Assessment of spring wheat genotypes on physio-morphic attributes under water deficit milieu. J. Agri. Sci. 2019;56(3):629-632.
Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR. Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2007;61:199-223.
Chaves MMJP. Maroco, Pereira JS. Understanding plant responses to drought—from genes to the whole plant. Functional Plant Biology. 2009;30(3):239–264.
Naeem MK, Ahmad M, Shah MKN, Kamran1 M, Iqbal1 MS. Character association and path analysis of osmotic adjustment, growth and physiological traits in wheat. JAPS. 2016;26:680-685.
Baloch MJ, Dunwell J, Khakwani AA, Dennett M, Jatoi WA, Channa SA. Assessment of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance via osmotic stress imposed at early seedling growth stages. J. Agric Res. 2012;50:299-310.
Rauf S, Munir M, Hassan MU, Ahmad M, Afzal M. Performance of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress at germination and early seedling growth stage. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2007;13:971-975.
Ahmad NS, Kareem SHS, Mustafa KM, Ahmad DA. Early screening of some kurdistan wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under drought stress. J. Agric. Sci. 2017;9:88-103.
Khan AS, UlAllah S, Sadique S. Genetic variability and correlation among seedling traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water stress. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2010;12:247-250.
Taiz L, Zeiger E. Stress Physiology. Plant physiology, 4th Edition, Sinauer Associated, Inc. USA. 2006;672-702.
Khan MA, Shabbir G, Akram Z, Shah MKN, Ansar M, Cheema NM, Iqbal MS. Character associations studies of seedling traits in different wheat genotypes under moisture stress conditions. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 2013;45:458-467.
Mujtaba SM, Faisal S, Khan MA, Mumtaz S, Khanzada B. Physiological studies on six wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) genotypes for drought stress tolerance at seedling stage. Agric Res & Tech. 2016;1:1-6.
Khakwani AA, Dennet MD, Munir M. Drought tolerance screening of wheat varieties by inducing water stress conditions. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 2011;33:135-142.
Bilal M, Rana RM, Rehman SU, Iqbal F, Ahmed J, Abid MA, Ahmed Z, Hayat A. Evaluation of wheat genotypes for drought tolerance. J. Green Physiol. Genet. Genom. 2015;1:11-21.
Mossa M, Mamati ME, Reda T. Evaluation of Physiological and Agronomic Responses as Screening Techniques for Yield and Water Stress Tolerance in Wheat Cultivars in Tigray, Ethiopia. AJAR. 2016;4:006-017.
Kaur V, Pulivendula P, Kumari A. Excised leaf water loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) As Affected by Short Periods of Heat and Water-deficit Treatment Followed by Recovery; 2016.
Lugojan C, Ciucla S. Evaluation of relative water contents in wheat. J. Hortic. Fros. Biotechnol. 2011;15:173-177.
Soleimani Z, Ramshini H, Mohammad S, Mortazavian M, Fazelnajafabadi M, Foughi B. Screening for drought tolerance in Iranian wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) using physiological traits evaluated under drought stress and normal condition. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 2014;8:200-207.
Arjenaki FG, Jabbari R, Morshedi A. Evaluation of drought stress on relative water contents, chlorophyll contents and mineral elements of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Intl. J. Agri Crop Sci. 2012;4:726-729.
Liu H, Searle IR, Mather DE, Able AJ, Able JA. Morphological, physiological and yield responses of durum wheat to pre-anthesis water-deficit stress are genotype-dependent. Crop Pasture Sci. 2015;66: 1024-1038.
Martin M, Micell F, Morgan JA, Scalet M, Zerbi G. Synthesis of osmotically active substances in winter heat leaves as related to drought resistance of different genotypes. J. Agron and Crop Science. 1993;171:176-184.
Pessarkli M. Hand book of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker Inc. 1999;697.
Cornic G. Drought stress inhibits photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal aperture–not by affecting ATP synthesis. Trends in Plant Science. 2000;5:187–188.
Schonfeld MA, Johnson RC, Carver BF, Mornhigweg DW. Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicators. Crop Sci. 1988;28:526–531.
Larbi, A and A. Mekliche. Relative water contents and leaf senescence as a screening tool for drought tolerance in wheat. CIHEAM. 2004;60:193-196.
Almeselmani M, Abudllah F, Hereri F, Naaesan M, Ammar MA, Zuherkanbar O. Effect of drought on different physiological characters and yield components in different varieties of Syrian durum wheat. J. Agric. Sci. 2011;3:127-133.
Shah TM, Imran M, Atta BM, Atta MY, Ashraf A. Hameed, Waqar I, Shafiq M, Hussain K, Naveed M, Aslam M, Maqbool MA. Selection and screening of drought tolerant high yielding chickpea genotypes based on physio-biochemical indices and multi-environmental yield trials. BMC Plant Biol. 20220;20:171.
Salma UK, Khatun F, Bhuiyan MJH, Yasmin S, Khan TH. In vitro screening for drought tolerance of some chickpea varieties in Bangladesh. Progressive Agriculture. 2006;27:110-118.
Chowdhury JA, Karim MA, Khaliq QA, Ahmad A. Effect of drought stress on bio-chemical change and cell membrane stability of soybean genotypes. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;42:75.
Devasirvatham V, Daniel K, Tan Y. Impact of high temperature and drought stresses on chickpea production. Agronomy. 2018;8:2-9.
Pouresmael M, Khavari RA, Mozafari NJ, Najafi F, Moradi F. Efficiency of screening criteria for drought tolerance in chickpea. Archiv Agron &Soil Sci. 2012;59:1561-1580.
Rezai M, Shabani A, Nakhjavan S, Zebarjadi A. Screening drought-tolerant genotypes in chickpea using stress tolerance score (STS) Method. Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res. 2015;3:119-128.
Maqbool MA, Aslam M, Ali H. Breeding for improved drought tolerance in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Plant Breeding. 2017;136:300–318.
Sabaghpour AH, Mahmodi AA, Saeed A, Kamel M, Malhotra RS. Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dryland condition of Iran. Indian J. Crop Science. 2006;1:70- 73.
Ramamoorthy P, Krishnamurthya L, Upadhyayaa HD, Vadez V, Varshney RK. Shoot traits and their relevance in terminal drought tolerance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Field Crop Res. 2016;197:10-27.
Ashraf M, Iram A. Drought stress induced changes in some organic substances in nodules and other plant parts of two potential legumes differing in salt tolerance. Flora. 2005;200:535-546.
Ismail MM, Moursy AA, Mousa AE. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown on sandy soil using 15N tracer. Bangladesh J. Bot. 2017;46:155-161.