Main Article Content
The genus Bambusa (family Poaceae) is the fastest growing grass in the world and adapted to various climatic conditions. Bamboos are used for variety of purposes such as for making poles, paper, charcoal, candles. Most of the species of the bamboos are edible and have high nutritional and mineral value. Bamboo shoots, leaves and other parts are used as food both in the fresh and dried form. Edible bamboos are used as tea, pickles and many more due to their high nutritional value. The flowering in bamboo is infrequent and seed viability is low, to fulfil the requirements of the bamboo In vitro culture of bamboo can be done. Different explants are used to grow the bamboo in the laboratory. It is present all over the world with a great genetic diversity and to classify the bamboo traditional methods are not appropriate. There are around 1200 species indigenous to Asia and new world of bamboo and their genetic diversity can be evaluated by using different molecular markers. A wide range of molecular markers is available that can help in the classification of bamboo and identification of bamboo genetic diversity. The present review highlights the use of molecular markers that are used in the genetic evaluation of the bamboo species.
Akinlabi, Esther Titilayo, Kwame Anane-Fenin, Damenortey Richard Akwada. Bamboo taxonomy and distribution across the globe. In Bamboo. Springer, Cham. 2017;1-37.
Sangeetha R, et al. The amazing bamboo: A review on its medicinal and pharmacological potential. Indian J Nutr. 2015;2(1):1-7.
Liese Walter, Michael Köhl, eds. Bamboo: The plant and its uses. Springer; 2015.
Fei Benhua, et al. Biological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of bamboo. Secondary Xylem Biology. Academic Press. 2016;283-306.
Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ. Herbal beverages and brain function in health and disease. Functional and Medicinal Beverages. Academic Press. 2019;313-349.
Panee Jun. Potential medicinal application and toxicity evaluation of extracts from bamboo plants. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2015;9(23):681.
Saini Himanshu, et al. In vitro micropropagation of himalayan weeping bamboo, Drepanostachyum falcatum. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2016; 7(09):1317.
Yeasmin Lucina, et al. Bamboo: An overview on its genetic diversity and characterization. 3 Biotech. 2015;5(1):1-11.
Nilkanta Heikrujam, et al. ISSR marker based population genetic study of Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz: A commercially important bamboo of Manipur, North-East India. Scientifica; 2017.
Ramakrishnan M, et al. Role of bamboo in ecosystem. Austin J. Env. Toxicol. 2018; 4:1023.
Nirmala Chongtham, et al. Bamboo: A rich source of natural antioxidants and its applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2018;77:91-99.
Premlata Thounaojam, et al. Nutrient components in young shoots of edible bamboos of Manipur, India; 2015.
Choudhury Monisha, et al. Influence of bamboo shoot powder fortification on physico-chemical, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(10): 6742-6748.
Mei-qing XU, et al. Records of bamboo diseases and the taxonomy of their pathogens in China (Ⅱ) [J]. Forest Research. 2007;1.
Gielis Johan, Jan Oprins. Micropropagation of temperate and tropical woody bamboos-from biotechnological dream to commercial reality. Bamboo for sustainable development. Proceedings of the Vth International Bamboo Congress and the VIth International Bamboo Workshop, San Jose, Costa Rica; 2002.
Gielis Johan, et al. Micropropagation, synthetic seeds and germplasm storage of bamboos. U.S. Patent No. 6,677,154; 2004.
George Edwin F, Michael A. Hall, Geert-Jan De Klerk, eds. Plant propagation by tissue culture: Volume 1. The background. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007;1.
Oseni Ojo Michael, Veena Pande, Tapan Kumar Nailwal. A review on plant tissue culture, a technique for propagation and conservation of endangered plant species. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018; 7(7):3778-3786.
Espinosa-Leal, Claudia A, César A. Puente-Garza, Silverio García-Lara. In vitro plant tissue culture: Means for production of biological active compounds. Planta. 2018; 248(1):1-18.
Chaille L. Optimization of tissue culture protocols for cost-effective production of dracaena, bamboo, and succulent plants. Diss. MSc. Thesis, Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Science, Hawaii; 2001.
Yuan Jin-Ling, et al. Protocol for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in Moso bamboo. PloS One. 2013;8(12).
Waikhom Sayanika Devi, Bengyella Louis. An effective protocol for micropropagation of edible bamboo species (Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera) through nodal culture. The Scientific World Journal; 2014.
Akinlabi Esther Titilayo, Kwame Anane-Fenin, Damenortey Richard Akwada. Applications of Bamboo. Bamboo. Springer, Cham. 2017;179-219.
Kaur Perminder Jit, et al. Bamboo: The material of future. International Journal Series in Multidisciplinary Research (IJSMR). 2016;2(2):27-34.
Peng Pai, Diao She. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2014;112:701- 720.
Besi, Malaysia Kem Sg. A review on mechanical properties of bamboo fiber reinforced polymer composite. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2013;7(8):247-253.
Nirmala Chongtham, Bisht MS. Molecular markers in bamboo systematics and germplasm screening. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 2012;13(3-4):73-82.
Kumar P. Suresh et al. Bamboo shoot as a source of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds: A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)]. 2017;8(1):32-46.
Singhal Poonam, Santosh Satya, Sudhakar P. Antioxidant and pharmaceutical potential of bamboo leaves. Bamboo Sci Cult. 2011;24(1):19-28.
Clark LG, Londoño X, Ruiz-Sanchez E. Bamboo taxonomy and habitat. Bamboo. Springer, Cham. 2015;1-30.
Singh Sharbati R, et al. Limitations, progress and prospects of application of biotechnological tools in improvement of bamboo—a plant with extraordinary qualities." Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2013;19(1):21-41.
Goutam Umesh, et al. Biotechnological approaches for grain quality improvement in wheat: Present status and future possibilities. Australian Journal of Crop Science 2013;7(4):469-483.
Marakli, Sevgi A brief review of molecular markers to analyse medically important plants. International Journal of Life Sciences and Biotechnology. 2018;1(1): 29-36.
Seçgin Zafer, et al. Selection of Root-Knot Nematod Resistance in inbred tomato lines using CAPS Molecular Markers." International Journal of Life Sciences and Biotechnology. 2018;1(1):10-16.
Mohan Madan, et al. Genome mapping, molecular markers and marker-assisted selection in crop plants." Molecular Breeding. 1997;3(2):87-103.
Joshi Kalpana, et al. Molecular markers in herbal drug technology. Current Science. 2004;159-165.
Lee Michael. Inbred lines of maize and their molecular markers. The Maize Handbook. Springer, New York, NY. 1994; 423-432.
Gupta PK, et al. Molecular markers and their applications in wheat breeding. Plant Breeding. 1999;118(5):369-390.
Goutam Umesh, et al. Recent trends and perspectives of molecular markers against fungal diseases in wheat. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2015;6:861.
Konzen Enéas Ricardo, et al. Molecular identification of bamboo genera and species based on RAPD-RFLP markers. Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste-Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE); 2017.
Bhandawat Abhishek, et al. Discovery and utilization of EST-SSR marker resource for genetic diversity and population structure analyses of a subtropical bamboo, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii. Biochemical Genetics. 2019;57(5):652-672.
Hafzari Rini, et al. Evaluation of RAPD markers for molecular identification of five bamboo genera from Indonesia. Folia Forestalia Polonica. 2019;61(4):255-266.
Biradar DP, et al. Characterization of bamboo elite clones from Western Ghats of India using RAPD markers. The Role of Biotechnology, Villa Gualino, Turin, Italy. 2005;155-156.
Amom Thoungamba, et al. Evaluation of genetic relationship between 15 bamboo species of North-East India based on ISSR marker analysis." Molecular Biology Research Communications. 2018;7(1):7.
Desai Parth, et al. Comparative assessment of genetic diversity among Indian bamboo genotypes using RAPD and ISSR markers. Molecular Biology Reports. 2015;42(8): 1265-1273.
Tiwari Chandrakant, Meena Bakshi. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among accessions of Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f. from the Garhwal Himalayas. Proceeding 10th World Bamboo Congress, Seoul, South Korea; 2015.
Tiwari Chandrakant, et al. Genetic diversity assessment of Sinarundinaria anceps (Mitf.) Chao and Renvoize accessions through Isozyme markers. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2019;515:519.
Hsieh Chang-Wen, et al. Molecular cloning and functional identification of invertase isozymes from green bamboo Bambusa oldhamii. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54(8): 3101-3107.
Chaluvaraju BS, et al. Conservation of bamboo genetic resources in Western Ghats: Status, threats and strategies. Forest Genetic Resources: Status, Threats and Conservation Strategies. 2001:97-113.
Oliveira RP, et al. Genetic and morphological variability in the Raddia brasiliensis complex (Poaceae: Bambusoideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 2008;274(1-2):25.
Bhandari MS, et al. Evaluation of genetic diversity in bamboo species through SDS-page Protein analysis. Indian Forester. 2015;141(8):826-831.
Friar E, Kochert G. Bamboo germplasm screening with nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1991; 82(6):697-703.
Senet Arnab. Molecular phylogeny of North Bengal bamboos inferred through PCR-RFLP based on the trnL-trnF region. The Experiment. 2014;19(1):1304-1315.
Nayak S, Rout GR, Das P. Evaluation of the genetic variability in bamboo using RAPD markers. Plant Soil and Environment. 2003;49(1):24-28.
Das Malay, Samik Bhattacharya, Amita Pal. Generation and characterization of SCARs by cloning and sequencing of RAPD products: A strategy for species-specific marker development in bamboo. Annals of Botany. 2005;95(5):835-841.
Creer S, et al. The utility of AFLPs for supporting mitochondrial DNA phylogeographical analyses in the Taiwanese bamboo viper, Trimeresurus stejnegeri. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2004;17(1):100-107.
Lou YongFeng, et al. Analysis on genetic relationship of Puji-bamboo species by AFLP and SRAP. Molecular Plant Breeding. 2010;8(1):83-88.
Nag Akshay, et al. AFLP and RAPD based genetic diversity assessment of industrially important reed bamboo (Ochlandra travancorica Benth). Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2013; 22(1):144-149.
Yang Han-Qi, et al. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Dendrocalamus membranaceus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae), a declining bamboo species in Yunnan, China, as based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012;13(4): 4446-4457.
Tian Bo, et al. ISSR analysis shows low genetic diversity versus high genetic differentiation for giant bamboo, Dendrocalamus giganteus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae), in China populations. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2012;59(5):901-908.
Goyal Arvind Kumar, et al. Micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) nees using RAPD and ISSR markers. 3 Biotech. 2015;5(4):473-482.
Cai Kai, et al. Development and characterization of EST-SSR markers from RNA-Seq data in Phyllostachys violascens. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;10:50.
Sharma RK, et al. Evaluation of rice and sugarcane SSR markers for phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses in bamboo. Genome. 2008;51(2):91-103.
Supari Nurhaziqah, et al. Molecular characterization of Malaysian rice cultivars using SSR markers. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC. 2019; 2155(1).
Kumar P, et al. Potential of molecular markers in plant biotechnology. Plant Omics. 2009;2(4):141.
Smýkal Peter, et al. Variety discrimination in pea (Pisum sativum L.) by molecular, biochemical and morphological markers. Journal of Applied Genetics. 2008;49(2): 155-166.
Glaubitz Jeffrey C, Gavin F. Moran. Genetic tools: The use of biochemical and molecular markers. Forest Conservation Genetics: Principles and Practice. 2000;39-59.
Hussein Sobri, Rusli Ibrahim, Anna Ling Pick Kiong. Potential biochemical markers for somatic embryos of Eurycoma longifolia jack. Journal of Plant Biology. 2006;49(1): 97-101.
Gill SS, Tuteja N. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2010;48:909–930.
Anjum Naser A, et al. Biophysical and biochemical markers of metal/metalloid-impacts in salt marsh halophytes and their implications. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2016;4:24.
Hamrick JL. Isozymes and the analysis of genetic structure in plant populations. Isozymes in Plant Biology. Springer, Dordrecht. 1989;87-105.
Kiss György B, et al. Construction of a basic genetic map for alfalfa using RFLP, RAPD, isozyme and morphological markers. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 1993;238(1-2):129-137.
Nevo E. Plant genetic resources: Prediction by isozyme markers and ecology. Isozymes. 1987;16: 247-267.
Hamrick JL, Godt MJW. Allozyme diversity in cultivated crops. Crop Science. 1997;37(1):26-30.
Crawford Daniel J, Elias Landolt. Allozyme divergence among species of Wolffia (Lemnaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 1995;197(1-4):59-69.
Filippov EG, Andronova EV. Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data. Russian Journal of Genetics. 2011;47(5):538.
Tanksley SD, et al. RFLP mapping in plant breeding: new tools for an old science. Bio/technology. 1989;7(3):257-264.
Thormann CE, et al. Comparison of RFLP and RAPD markers to estimating genetic relationships within and among cruciferous species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1994;88(8):973-980.
Dhanendiren N, et al. PCR-RFLP analysis of cpDNA in Gigantochloa scortechinii (Poaceae: Bambuseae) in Peninsular Malaysia and implications for the use of cpDNA markers in systematic studies. Silvae Genetica. 2015;64(1-6):194-200.
Bardakci Fevzi. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2001;25(2): 185-196.
Fanizza G, Corona MG, Resta P. Analysis of genetic relationships among Muscat grapevines in Apulia (South Italy) by RAPD markers. VITIS-Journal of Grapevine Research. 2015;39(4):159.
Makmur Muhammad Fadly, Siti Halimah Larekeng, Muh Restu. Genetic diversity of eight types of bamboo based on random amplified polymorphic dna (Rapd) markers. Plant Archives. 2020;20(2):2333-2337.
Baishya Samindra, Sunayana Rathi, Akashi Sarma. Genetic variation in bamboo species of North East India through RAPD. Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry. 2016; 29(1):36-40.
Mueller Ulrich G, LaReesa Wolfenbarger L. AFLP genotyping and fingerprinting. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 1999; 14(10):389-394.
Wu Wen-Dan, et al. Genetic diversity and structure of Elymus tangutorum accessions from western China as unraveled by AFLP markers. Hereditas. 2019;156(1):8.
Loh Jin Phang, et al. A study of genetic variation and relationships within the bamboo subtribe Bambusinae using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Annals of Botany. 2000;85(5):607-612.
Triplett Jimmy K, Kimberly A. Oltrogge, Lynn G. Clark. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization among the North American woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Arundinaria). American Journal of Botany. 2010;97(3):471-492.
Kuleung C, Baenziger PS, Dweikat I. Transferability of SSR markers among wheat, rye, and triticale. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2004;108(6):1147-1150.
Sharma Vikas, et al. Identification and cross-species amplification of EST derived SSR markers in different bamboo species. Conservation Genetics. 2009;10(3):721-724.
Chen Shu-Yun, et al. Transferability of rice SSR markers to bamboo. Euphytica. 2010; 175(1):23-33.
Godwin Ian D, Elisabeth AB Aitken, Lawrence W. Smith. Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to plant genetics. Electrophoresis. 1997;18(9): 1524-1528.
Li Ang, Song Ge. Genetic variation and clonal diversity of Psammochloa villosa (Poaceae) detected by ISSR markers. Annals of Botany. 2001;87(5):585-590.
Chaudhary Spandan, et al. Evaluation of genetic variability of bamboo varieties cultivated in gujarat region using ISSR markers. Indian Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;3(1): 1-6.