KH2PO4 AND SUCROSE AFFECTED in vitro AND ex vitro DATE PALM PLANTLETS CV SAKOTY

Main Article Content

R. S. S. DARWESH
M. MONA HASAN
AMAL F. M. ZEIN EL- DIN
FADIA A. HUSSEIN

Abstract

The acclimatization stage of date palm plantlets is crucial for increasing numbers of plants to culture in the open field so to increasing the survival percentage of this stage in the greenhouse this study was done to improving plantlets in the rooting stage in vitro by using different concentrations of KH2PO4 as full (170 mg L-1), full (170 mg L-1) + ¼ and full (170 mg L-1) + ½ and sucrose 30 as control treatment, 45 and 60 g L-1. The found results exhibited the treatment KH2POat full  with 45 g L-1 sucrose  proved to be the great treatment for  increasing in vitro height plants, while the root length and numbers and stem thickness were highly increasing under KH2PO4 full + ½ with 60 g L-1 sucrose, maximum hairy roots produced by full KH2PO4 +30 g L-1 sucrose, highest numbers of leaves obtained on the medium supplemented by full KH2PO4 + ¼  with 45 g L-1 sucrose, the greatest percentage of plantlets acclimatization under full + ¼ KH2PO4 with 30 and 45 g L-1 sucrose. More contents of total indoles, chlorophyll a and b were present under full +1/4 and full + ½ KH2PO4 with 45 g L-1 sucrose. Up on the previous results the treatment of full + ¼ or full + ½ KH2PO4 with 45 g L-1 sucrose is the preferable for successful in vitro and ex vitro stages.

Keywords:
Date palm, ex vitro, growth, KH2PO4, indole, in vitro.

Article Details

How to Cite
DARWESH, R. S. S., HASAN, M. M., DIN, A. F. M. Z. E.-, & HUSSEIN, F. A. (2020). KH2PO4 AND SUCROSE AFFECTED in vitro AND ex vitro DATE PALM PLANTLETS CV SAKOTY. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 26(6), 122-132. Retrieved from http://ikpresse.com/index.php/JOBARI/article/view/5672
Section
Original Research Article

References

Awad MA. Fruit set failure in tissue culture-derived date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) c.v. ‘NabtSaif’ as affected by pollinator type and pollination density'. Acta Horticulture. 2007;736:441-448.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website, In; 2010; Available:http://faostat.fao.org

Guerra MP, Vesco LLD. Strategies for the micropropagation of bromeliads. In: JAIN, S. M.; OCHATT, S. J. (Eds.). Protocols for in vitro propagation of ornamental plants: methods in molecular biology. New York: Humana Press. 2010;2010:47-66.

Zaid A, El-Korchi B, Visser H.J. 'Commercial date palm tissue culture procedures and facility establishment'. In Date palm Biotechnology, Jain S.M. et al. (Eds.). Springer Science Business Media. 2001;137-180.

Jain SM. Date palm biotechnology: Current status and prospective-an overview. Emir J Food Agric. 2012;24:386-399.

Mazri MA, Meziani R. Micropropagation of Date Palm: A review. Cell & Developmental Biology, web page. Google.com; 2012.

Gurel S, Gulsen Y. The effects of different sucrose, agar and pH levels on in vitro shoot production of almond (Amygdalus communis L.). Turkish J Bot. 1998;22(6):363–373.

Fila G, Badeck F, Meyer S, Cerovic Z, Ghashghaie J. Relationships between leaf conductance to CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in micropropagated grapevine plants, before and after ex vitro acclimatization. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2687–2695.

Muller B, Pantin F, Génard M, Turc O, Freixes S. Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:1715– 1729.

Iarema L, Cruz ACF, Saldanha CW, Dias LLC, Vieira RF, Oliveira EJ, Otoni WC. Photoautotrophic propagation of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata) (Spreng.) Pedersen. Plant Cell Tiss Org. 2012;110(2):227-238.

Mohamed MAH, Alsadon AA. Influence of ventilation and sucrose on growth and leaf anatomy of micropropagated potato plantlets. Sci Hort. 2010;123(3):295–300.

Jo EA, Tewari RK, Hahn EJ, Paek KY. In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tiss Org. 2009;96(3):307–315.

Pinto E, Ferreira IO. Cation transporters/channels in plants: tools for nutrient biofortification. J. Plant Physiol. 2015;179:64–82. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. jplph.2015.02.010

Paula YCM, Pasqual M, Pio LAS, Pinho PJd, Santos DNd. Micropropagação de bananeira sob diferentes concentrações de potássio e magnésio. Tecnol. Cienc. Agropecu. 2015;9:43–47.

Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Borhannuddin MHM, Kamrun N, Shahadat H. Md, Jubayer Al M, Shahadat H. Md, Abdul Awal Ch. M, Moumita, Masayuki F. Potassium: A vital regulator of plant responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Agronomy. 2018;8:31.

Sumaryono, Wirdhatul M, Diah R. Effect of carbohydrate source on growth and performance of In Vitro Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) Plantlets. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences. 2012;19(2):88-92.

Martins JPR, Moacir P, Adalvan Daniel Martins AD, Ribeira SF. Effects of salts and sucrose concentrations on in vitro propagation of Billbergia zebrina (Herbert) Lindley (Bromeliaceae). Asian Journal of Crop Science. 2015;9(1):85-91.

Eun-A JO, Tewari RK, Eun-Joo H, Paek KY. In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2009;96(3):307-315. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-008-9488-4

Flávio J. da Silva, Nascimento AB, Barbosa, LN, Magalhães HM. In vitro cultivation of purple basil Ocimum basilicum L. 'red rubin' at different levels of salts, charcoal, sucrose and potassium iodine. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(9):1137-1145.

Zahara M, Datta A, Boonkorkaew P, Mishra A. The Effects of different media, sucrose concentrations and natural additives on plantlet growth of Phalaenopsis Hybrid 'Pink'. Braz. arch. biol. technol. 60 Curitiba; 2017.

Fadel D, Kintzios S, Economou AS, Moschopoulou G, Constantinidou HIA. Effect of different strength of medium on organogenesis, phenolic accumulation and antioxidant activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). The Open Horticulture Journal. 2010;3(1):31-35.

Available:https://doi.org/10.2174/18748406010030 10031

Kahrizi D, Ghari SM, Ghaheri M, Ansarypour Z. Effect of KH2PO4 on gene expression, morphological and biochemical characteristics of stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro conditions. 107Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2017;(10):107-111.

Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2017.63.7.18

Hirosse EH, Creste JE, Custódio CC, Machado-Neto NB. In vitro growth of sweet potato fed with potassium phosphite. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy Maringá. 2012;34(1):85-91.

Mazri MA, Meziani R, El Fadile J, Ezzinbi A. Optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. Mejhoul. Biotech. 2016;6(111):web page.

Carvalhoa AA, Bertoluccia SKV, da Silvaa GM, da Cunhaa SHB, Rozaa HLH, Aazzab SC, Pintoa JEB. Mesos components (CaCl2, MgSO4, KH2PO4) induced changes in growth and ascaridole content of Dysphania ambrosioides L. in vitro. Industrial Crops & Products. 2018;122(2018):28–36.

Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Plant Physiol. 1962;15:473-497.

Darwesh RSS, Mohamed HF. The adverse effect of GA3 (Gibberellic acid) on salinity of Phoenix dactylifera L. plantlets in vitro rooting stage. 4th Conference on Recent Technology in agriculture; 2009.

Rasmia SS, Darwesh, Zienab, Zaid E, Rehab A. Sidky. Effect of ammonium nitrate and GA3 on Growth and Development of Date Palm Plantlets in Vitro and Acclimatization Stage. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2011;7(1):17-22.

Darwesh, Rasmia SS. Morphology, physiology and anatomy in vitro affected acclimatization ex vitro date palm plantlets: A Review. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJCEBS). 2015;3(2):175-182.

Pottino BG. Methods in plant tissue culture. Dept. of Hort., Agric. College. Maryland. Univ., College Park.Maryland USA. 1981;8-29.

Salim HH, Fayek MA, Sweidan AM. Reproduction of Bircher apple cultivar by layering. Ann Agic., Sci., Moshtohor. 1978;78(9):157-166.

Lichtenthaler HK, Wellburn AR. Determination of Total Carotenoids and Chlorophylls A and B of Leaf in Different Solvents. Biol. Soc. Trans. 1985;11:591-592.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical Methods, 8th Ed. Iowa State Univ.Press, Ames, Iowa, USA; 1980.

Hand C, Maki S, Reed BM. Modeling optimal mineral nutrition for hazelnut micropropagation. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. (PCTOC). 2014;119:411–425. Available:http://dx. doi.org/10.1007/s11240-014-0544-y.

Greenway MB, Phillips IC, Lloyd MN, Hubstenberger JF, Phillips GC. A nutrient medium for diverse applications and tissue growth of plant species in vitro. In Vitro Cell. Dev Biol-Plant. 2012;48(4):403–410.

Tang ZH, Zhang AJ, Wei M, Chen XG, Liu ZH, Li HM, Ding YF. Physiological response to potassium deficiency in three sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) genotypes differing in potassium utilization efficiency. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2015;37:184.

Pandey R, Zinta G, AbdElgawad H, Ahmad A, Jain V, Janssens IA. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress. Biotechnol. Adv. 2015;33:303–316. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. biotethadv.2015.03.011

Cakmak I. The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2005;168:521–530.

Mengel K. Principles of Plant Nutrition, 5th ed.; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 2001;481–509.

Mengel K. Potassium. In handbook of plant nutrition; Barker, A.V., Pilbeam, D.J., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA. 2007;91–120.

Berg WK, Cunningham SM, Brouder SM, Joern BC, Johnson KD, Volence JJ. Influence of phosphorus and potassium on alfalfa yield, taproot C and N pools, and transcript levels of key genes after defoliation. Crop Sci. 2009;49:974–982.

Cherel L. Regulation of K+ channel activitic in plants: From physiological to molecular aspects. Journal Exp. Botany. 2004;55:337-351.

Min Wang, Qingsong Z, Qirong Sh, Shiwei G. The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2013;14(4):7370-7390.

Zorb C, Senbayramb M, Peiter E. Potassium in agriculture – Status and perspectives. J Plant Physiol. 2014;171:656–669.

Sathyanarayana BN. Plant Tissue Culture: Practices and New Experimental Protocols. I. K. International Pvt Ltd, Botany, Experi-mental. 2007;316.

George Edwin F, Hall Michael A, De Klerk GJ. Plant propagation by tissue culture. Plant Sci. 2008;1:65–113.

Paula J, Danuta K, Aleksandra Z. In Vitro Micropropagation of Drosera rotundifolia. World Scient i f ic News. 2017;66 (2017):75-85.

Chinthala P, Ciddi V. Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica. Pharmacogn Mag. 2014;10(Suppl 3):S480–S486.

Sopalun K, Thammasiri K, Ishikawa K. Micropropagation of the Thai orchid Grammatophyllum speciosum blume. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult. 2010;101:143-150.

Faria de RT, Rodrigues FN, Olivera LVR, Muller C. In vitro Dendrobium nobile plant growth and rooting in different sucrose concentrations. Hortic Bras. 2004;22:780-783.

Al-Khateeb AA. Regulation of in vitro bud formation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Khanezi by different carbon sources. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:6550-6555.

Hazarika BN. Acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants. Curr Sci. 2003;85:1704–1712.

Singh GC, Yadav MLa. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of sugarcane using shoot tip explants. Sugar Tech. 2001;3(3):113–116.

AL-Maarri KW, Al-Ghamdi AS. Following the date of planting Aalajza plant propagation Palm plant tissue class Hilali, the versions of Scientific Research Symposium of the Kingdom of Morocco – Marrakech 16 - 18 / February /; 1998.

Hamid MK. Propagation of some varieties of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Vegetatively using tissue culture technology. Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad; 2001.

Jorge G, Lourdes Martínez-N, Mariana L, Jaume F. Pedro PG. Modeling the effects of light and sucrose on in vitro propagated plants: A multiscale system analysis using artificial intelligence technology. Modeling Plant Acclimation Using Neurofuzzy Logic. 2014;9(1):1-11.

Trettel JR, Nascimento AB, Barbosa LN, Magalhães HM. In vitro growth of Genovese basil in response to different concentrations of salts and interaction of sucrose and activated carbon. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(9):142-152.

DOI:10.5539/jas.v10n9p142

Wang L, Ruan YL. Regulation of cell division and expansion by sugar and auxin signaling. Front Plant Sci. 2013;4:1-9.

Melaku T, Belayneh A, Kassahun B. In vitro rooting and acclimatization of micro propagated elite Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes - N52 and N53. Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering,. 2016;7:164. DOI:10.4172/2157-7552.1000164

Badawy EM, Afaf MA, Habib A. El-Bana, Gehan M. Yosry. Propagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) plants by using tissue culture technique. Arab J. Biotech. 2005;8(2):343-354.

Ricardo JLM, Ana VM, Marcos Daquinta G, Luis G. Towards scaling-up the micropropagation of Juglans major (Torrey) Heller var. 209 x J. regia L., a hybrid walnut of commercial interest. Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party 2.09.02 conference Integrating vegetative propagation, biotechnologies and genetic improvement for tree production and sustainable forest management; 2012. Brno, Czech Republic

Mushtaque J, Abul Soad AA. Factors affecting in vitro rooting of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;51(2):477-484.

Abul – Soad AA, Zaid ZE, Sidky R. Improved method for the micropropagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) through elongation and rooting stages. Bull. Fac. Agri. Cairo Univ. Egypt. 2006;57:791-801

Mahmood SA. Identification of the effect of different levels of activated charcoal and sucrose on multiplication shoots of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L.C.v. sufedy in vitro. Academic Journal of Horticulture Forestry. 2013;5(9):139-145.

Rafiullah Khan MJ, Muhammad D. Foliar application of phosphorus to enhance phosphorus utilization and crop growth: A hydroponic study. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 2018;34(1):47-53.

Ibrahim AE, Mona HM, Darwesh RSS. Pre- acclimatization stage of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) plantlets cv. Barhee as affected by potassium nitrate and sucrose. Journal of Biological Chemistry & Environmental Sciences. 2012;7(3):1-20.Awad MA. Fruit set failure in tissue culture-derived date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) c.v. ‘NabtSaif’ as affected by pollinator type and pollination density'. Acta Horticulture. 2007;736:441-448.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website, In; 2010; Available:http://faostat.fao.org

Guerra MP, Vesco LLD. Strategies for the micropropagation of bromeliads. In: JAIN, S. M.; OCHATT, S. J. (Eds.). Protocols for in vitro propagation of ornamental plants: methods in molecular biology. New York: Humana Press. 2010;2010:47-66.

Zaid A, El-Korchi B, Visser H.J. 'Commercial date palm tissue culture procedures and facility establishment'. In Date palm Biotechnology, Jain S.M. et al. (Eds.). Springer Science Business Media. 2001;137-180.

Jain SM. Date palm biotechnology: Current status and prospective-an overview. Emir J Food Agric. 2012;24:386-399.

Mazri MA, Meziani R. Micropropagation of Date Palm: A review. Cell & Developmental Biology, web page. Google.com; 2012.

Gurel S, Gulsen Y. The effects of different sucrose, agar and pH levels on in vitro shoot production of almond (Amygdalus communis L.). Turkish J Bot. 1998;22(6):363–373.

Fila G, Badeck F, Meyer S, Cerovic Z, Ghashghaie J. Relationships between leaf conductance to CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in micropropagated grapevine plants, before and after ex vitro acclimatization. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2687–2695.

Muller B, Pantin F, Génard M, Turc O, Freixes S. Water deficits uncouple growth from photosynthesis, increase C content, and modify the relationships between C and growth in sink organs. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:1715– 1729.

Iarema L, Cruz ACF, Saldanha CW, Dias LLC, Vieira RF, Oliveira EJ, Otoni WC. Photoautotrophic propagation of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata) (Spreng.) Pedersen. Plant Cell Tiss Org. 2012;110(2):227-238.

Mohamed MAH, Alsadon AA. Influence of ventilation and sucrose on growth and leaf anatomy of micropropagated potato plantlets. Sci Hort. 2010;123(3):295–300.

Jo EA, Tewari RK, Hahn EJ, Paek KY. In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tiss Org. 2009;96(3):307–315.

Pinto E, Ferreira IO. Cation transporters/channels in plants: tools for nutrient biofortification. J. Plant Physiol. 2015;179:64–82. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. jplph.2015.02.010

Paula YCM, Pasqual M, Pio LAS, Pinho PJd, Santos DNd. Micropropagação de bananeira sob diferentes concentrações de potássio e magnésio. Tecnol. Cienc. Agropecu. 2015;9:43–47.

Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Borhannuddin MHM, Kamrun N, Shahadat H. Md, Jubayer Al M, Shahadat H. Md, Abdul Awal Ch. M, Moumita, Masayuki F. Potassium: A vital regulator of plant responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Agronomy. 2018;8:31.

Sumaryono, Wirdhatul M, Diah R. Effect of carbohydrate source on growth and performance of In Vitro Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) Plantlets. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences. 2012;19(2):88-92.

Martins JPR, Moacir P, Adalvan Daniel Martins AD, Ribeira SF. Effects of salts and sucrose concentrations on in vitro propagation of Billbergia zebrina (Herbert) Lindley (Bromeliaceae). Asian Journal of Crop Science. 2015;9(1):85-91.

Eun-A JO, Tewari RK, Eun-Joo H, Paek KY. In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 2009;96(3):307-315. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-008-9488-4

Flávio J. da Silva, Nascimento AB, Barbosa, LN, Magalhães HM. In vitro cultivation of purple basil Ocimum basilicum L. 'red rubin' at different levels of salts, charcoal, sucrose and potassium iodine. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(9):1137-1145.

Zahara M, Datta A, Boonkorkaew P, Mishra A. The Effects of different media, sucrose concentrations and natural additives on plantlet growth of Phalaenopsis Hybrid 'Pink'. Braz. arch. biol. technol. 60 Curitiba; 2017.

Fadel D, Kintzios S, Economou AS, Moschopoulou G, Constantinidou HIA. Effect of different strength of medium on organogenesis, phenolic accumulation and antioxidant activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). The Open Horticulture Journal. 2010;3(1):31-35. Available:https://doi.org/10.2174/18748406010030 10031

Kahrizi D, Ghari SM, Ghaheri M, Ansarypour Z. Effect of KH2PO4 on gene expression, morphological and biochemical characteristics of stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro conditions. 107Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2017;(10):107-111. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2017.63.7.18

Hirosse EH, Creste JE, Custódio CC, Machado-Neto NB. In vitro growth of sweet potato fed with potassium phosphite. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy Maringá. 2012;34(1):85-91.

Mazri MA, Meziani R, El Fadile J, Ezzinbi A. Optimization of medium composition for in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of date palm cv. Mejhoul. Biotech. 2016;6(111):web page.

Carvalhoa AA, Bertoluccia SKV, da Silvaa GM, da Cunhaa SHB, Rozaa HLH, Aazzab SC, Pintoa JEB. Mesos components (CaCl2, MgSO4, KH2PO4) induced changes in growth and ascaridole content of Dysphania ambrosioides L. in vitro. Industrial Crops & Products. 2018;122(2018):28–36.

Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Plant Physiol. 1962;15:473-497.

Darwesh RSS, Mohamed HF. The adverse effect of GA3 (Gibberellic acid) on salinity of Phoenix dactylifera L. plantlets in vitro rooting stage. 4th Conference on Recent Technology in agriculture; 2009.

Rasmia SS, Darwesh, Zienab, Zaid E, Rehab A. Sidky. Effect of ammonium nitrate and GA3 on Growth and Development of Date Palm Plantlets in Vitro and Acclimatization Stage. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2011;7(1):17-22.

Darwesh, Rasmia SS. Morphology, physiology and anatomy in vitro affected acclimatization ex vitro date palm plantlets: A Review. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences (IJCEBS). 2015;3(2):175-182.

Pottino BG. Methods in plant tissue culture. Dept. of Hort., Agric. College. Maryland. Univ., College Park.Maryland USA. 1981;8-29.

Salim HH, Fayek MA, Sweidan AM. Reproduction of Bircher apple cultivar by layering. Ann Agic., Sci., Moshtohor. 1978;78(9):157-166.

Lichtenthaler HK, Wellburn AR. Determination of Total Carotenoids and Chlorophylls A and B of Leaf in Different Solvents. Biol. Soc. Trans. 1985;11:591-592.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical Methods, 8th Ed. Iowa State Univ.Press, Ames, Iowa, USA; 1980.

Hand C, Maki S, Reed BM. Modeling optimal mineral nutrition for hazelnut micropropagation. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. (PCTOC). 2014;119:411–425. Available:http://dx. doi.org/10.1007/s11240-014-0544-y.

Greenway MB, Phillips IC, Lloyd MN, Hubstenberger JF, Phillips GC. A nutrient medium for diverse applications and tissue growth of plant species in vitro. In Vitro Cell. Dev Biol-Plant. 2012;48(4):403–410.

Tang ZH, Zhang AJ, Wei M, Chen XG, Liu ZH, Li HM, Ding YF. Physiological response to potassium deficiency in three sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) genotypes differing in potassium utilization efficiency. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2015;37:184.

Pandey R, Zinta G, AbdElgawad H, Ahmad A, Jain V, Janssens IA. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress. Biotechnol. Adv. 2015;33:303–316. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. biotethadv.2015.03.011

Cakmak I. The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2005;168:521–530.

Mengel K. Principles of Plant Nutrition, 5th ed.; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 2001;481–509.

Mengel K. Potassium. In handbook of plant nutrition; Barker, A.V., Pilbeam, D.J., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA. 2007;91–120.

Berg WK, Cunningham SM, Brouder SM, Joern BC, Johnson KD, Volence JJ. Influence of phosphorus and potassium on alfalfa yield, taproot C and N pools, and transcript levels of key genes after defoliation. Crop Sci. 2009;49:974–982.

Cherel L. Regulation of K+ channel activitic in plants: From physiological to molecular aspects. Journal Exp. Botany. 2004;55:337-351.

Min Wang, Qingsong Z, Qirong Sh, Shiwei G. The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2013;14(4):7370-7390.

Zorb C, Senbayramb M, Peiter E. Potassium in agriculture – Status and perspectives. J Plant Physiol. 2014;171:656–669.

Sathyanarayana BN. Plant Tissue Culture: Practices and New Experimental Protocols. I. K. International Pvt Ltd, Botany, Experi-mental. 2007;316.

George Edwin F, Hall Michael A, De Klerk GJ. Plant propagation by tissue culture. Plant Sci. 2008;1:65–113.

Paula J, Danuta K, Aleksandra Z. In Vitro Micropropagation of Drosera rotundifolia. World Scient i f ic News. 2017;66 (2017):75-85.

Chinthala P, Ciddi V. Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica. Pharmacogn Mag. 2014;10(Suppl 3):S480–S486.

Sopalun K, Thammasiri K, Ishikawa K. Micropropagation of the Thai orchid Grammatophyllum speciosum blume. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult. 2010;101:143-150.

Faria de RT, Rodrigues FN, Olivera LVR, Muller C. In vitro Dendrobium nobile plant growth and rooting in different sucrose concentrations. Hortic Bras. 2004;22:780-783.

Al-Khateeb AA. Regulation of in vitro bud formation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Khanezi by different carbon sources. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:6550-6555.

Hazarika BN. Acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants. Curr Sci. 2003;85:1704–1712.

Singh GC, Yadav MLa. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of sugarcane using shoot tip explants. Sugar Tech. 2001;3(3):113–116.

AL-Maarri KW, Al-Ghamdi AS. Following the date of planting Aalajza plant propagation Palm plant tissue class Hilali, the versions of Scientific Research Symposium of the Kingdom of Morocco – Marrakech 16 - 18 / February /; 1998.

Hamid MK. Propagation of some varieties of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Vegetatively using tissue culture technology. Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad; 2001.

Jorge G, Lourdes Martínez-N, Mariana L, Jaume F. Pedro PG. Modeling the effects of light and sucrose on in vitro propagated plants: A multiscale system analysis using artificial intelligence technology. Modeling Plant Acclimation Using Neurofuzzy Logic. 2014;9(1):1-11.

Trettel JR, Nascimento AB, Barbosa LN, Magalhães HM. In vitro growth of Genovese basil in response to different concentrations of salts and interaction of sucrose and activated carbon. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(9):142-152. DOI:10.5539/jas.v10n9p142

Wang L, Ruan YL. Regulation of cell division and expansion by sugar and auxin signaling. Front Plant Sci. 2013;4:1-9.

Melaku T, Belayneh A, Kassahun B. In vitro rooting and acclimatization of micro propagated elite Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes - N52 and N53. Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering,. 2016;7:164. DOI:10.4172/2157-7552.1000164

Badawy EM, Afaf MA, Habib A. El-Bana, Gehan M. Yosry. Propagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) plants by using tissue culture technique. Arab J. Biotech. 2005;8(2):343-354.

Ricardo JLM, Ana VM, Marcos Daquinta G, Luis G. Towards scaling-up the micropropagation of Juglans major (Torrey) Heller var. 209 x J. regia L., a hybrid walnut of commercial interest. Proceedings of the IUFRO Working Party 2.09.02 conference Integrating vegetative propagation, biotechnologies and genetic improvement for tree production and sustainable forest management; 2012. Brno, Czech Republic

Mushtaque J, Abul Soad AA. Factors affecting in vitro rooting of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;51(2):477-484.

Abul – Soad AA, Zaid ZE, Sidky R. Improved method for the micropropagation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) through elongation and rooting stages. Bull. Fac. Agri. Cairo Univ. Egypt. 2006;57:791-801

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